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Full text of "NB NBIC 2 (2007): 2009 Addendum to Part 2"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

NBIC 2007, National Board Inspection Code, 

Part 2, Inspection, 2009 Addenda Release, 

as mandated by the requirements of the States 

of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, 

Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, 

North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, and Utah. 





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Part 2 - Inspection 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



NOTE: Pages ii through xvi are not part of this 
American National Standard. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 52-44738 

Printed in the United States of America 

All Rights Reserved 

©2009 
The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

Headquarters 

1055 Crupper Avenue 

Columbus, Ohio 43229-1 1 83 

614.888.8320 

614.847.1828 Fax 

Testing Laboratory 

7437 Pingue Drive 

Worthington, Ohio 43085-1 71 5 

614.888.8320 

614.848.3474 Fax 

Training & Conference Center 

1065 Crupper Avenue 

Columbus, Ohio 43229-1 183 

614.888.8320 

614.847.5542 Fax 

Inspection Training Center 

1 075 Crupper Avenue 

Columbus, Ohio 43229-1 183 

614.888.8320 

614.431.3208 Fax 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors 
Board of Trustees 

R.J. Abenjr. 
Chairman 

J.T. Amato 
First Vice Chairman 

D.J. Jenkins 
Second Vice Chairman 

D.A. Douin 

Secretary /Treasurer 

J.M. Given Jr. 
Member at Large 

G.L Scribner 
Member at Large 

D.C. Price 
Member at Large 

B. Krasiun 
Member at Large 

Advisory Committee 

G. W. Galanes, P.E. 
representing welding industries 

E.J. Hoveke 
representing National Board certificate holders 

L.J. McManamon Jr. 
representing organized labor 

M.J. Pischke 
representing pressure vessel manufacturers 

B.R. Morelock, P.E. 
representing boiler and pressure vessel users 

C.E. Perry 
representing boiler manufacturers 

C.G. Schaber 
representing authorized inspection agencies (insurance companies) 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



National Board Members 

Alabama Ralph P. Pate 

Alaska Chris Fulton 

Arizona Randall D.Austin 

Arkansas Gary R. Myrick 

California Donald C. Cook 

Colorado Steve Nelson 

Connecticut 

Delaware James B. Harlan 

Florida *. Michael A. Burns 

Georgia Paul J. Welch 

Hawaii Keith A. Rudolph 

Idaho Mike Poulin 

Illinois Bennie F. Bailey 

Indiana Dan Willis 

Iowa Michael Klosterman 

Kansas ..Donald J. Jenkins 

Kentucky Rodney Handy 

Louisiana William Owens 

Maine John H. Burpee 

Maryland Karl J. Kraft 

Massachusetts Edward S. Kawa Jr. 

Michigan Robert J. Aben Jr. 

Minnesota JoelT. Amato 

Mississippi Kenneth L.Watson 

Missouri Gary L. Scribner 

Montana Timothy Stewart 

Nebraska Christopher B. Cantrell 

Nevada Roy L. Perry 

New Hampshire Wayne Brigham 

New Jersey Milton Washington 

New York Peter L. Vesciojr. 

North Carolina Jack M. Given Jr. 

North Dakota Robert Reetz 

Ohio DeanT. Jagger 

Oklahoma Tom Monroe 

Oregon Michael D. Graham 

Pennsylvania Jack A. Davenport 

Rhode island Benjamin Anthony 

South Carolina Ronald W. Spiker 

South Dakota Howard D. Pfaff 

Tennessee Audrey E. Rogers 

Texas Anthony P.Jones 

Utah Rick K.Sturm 

Vermont Wesley E. Criderjr. 

Virginia Edward G. Hilton 

Washington Linda Williamson 

West Virginia John F. Porcella 

Wisconsin Michael J. Verhagen 

Chicago, IL Michael J. Ryan 

Detroit, Ml John E. Bell 

Los Angeles, CA JovieAclaro 

Milwaukee, Wl Randal S. Pucek 

New York, NY William McGivney 

Alberta Ken K.T. Lau 

British Columbia John G. Siggers 

Manitoba Terry W. Rieger 

New Brunswick Dale E. Ross 

Newfoundland & Labrador E. Dennis Eastman 

Northwest Territories Steve Donovan 

Nova Scotia Peter Dodge 

Nunavut Territory 

Ontario Gilles Lemay 

Prince Edward Island Kenneth Hynes 

Quebec Madiha M. Kotb 

Saskatchewan Brian Krasiun 

Yukon Territory Daniel C. Price 

IV 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE 



National Board Inspection Code Committees 



Main Committee 



T. Parks, Chair 

The National Board of Boiler and 

Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

R. Wielgoszinski, Vice Chair 
Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
Insurance Company of Connecticut 

R. Hough, Secretary 

The National Board of Boiler and 

Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

S. Bacon 

Conoco Phillips-ferndale Refinery 

P. Bourgeois 
Travelers 

D. Canonico 
Canonico & Associates 

D. Cook 

State of California 

P. Edwards 

Stone & Webster, Inc. 

C. Galanes 

Midwest Generation EME, LLC 

J. Given 

State of North Carolina 

F. Hart 

Furmanite Corporation 

C. Hopkins 
Seattle Boiler Works 

D. Parrish 
FM Global 



J. Pillow 

Common Arc Corporation 



R. Reetz 

State of North Dakota 



H. Richards 
Southern Company 

J. Richardson 
Consultant-Dresser, Inc. 

G. Scribner 
State of Missouri 

J. Sekely 

Wayne Crouse Inc. 

R. Snyder 
ARISE, Inc. 

S. Staniszewski 

US Department of Transportation 

R. Suizer 

The Babcock & Wilcox Company 

H. Titer 

MIRANT Mid-Atlantic 



J. Yagen 
Dynegy, Inc. 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Subcommittee for installation (Part 1) 



H. Richards, Chair 
Southern Company 

C. Hopkins 
Seattle Boiler Works 

P. Bourgeois 
Travelers 

C. Halley 
ABMA 

S. Konopacki 
Midwest Generation 

B. Moore 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company of Connecticut 



H. Tyndall 

Zurich Services Corp. 

C. Scribner 
State of Missouri 

R. Snyder 
ARISE, Inc. 

R. Sulzer 

The Babcock & Wilcox Company 

H. Titer 

MIRANT Mid-Atlantic 

J. Yagen 
Dynegy, Inc. 



Subgroup for installation (Part 1) 
Boilers 

C. Hopkins, Chair 
Seattle Boiler Works 

P. Bourgeois 
St. Paul Travelers 

G. Halley, P.E. 
ABMA 

S. Konopacki 
Midwest Generation 

B. Moore, P.E. 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 

H. Tyndall 

Zurich Services Corp. 

C. Scribner 
State of Missouri 

R. Sulzer 

The Babcock & Wilcox Company 



Pressure Vessels and Piping 

J. Yagen, Chair 
Dynegy, Inc. 

H. Richards 
Southern Company 

C. Scribner 
State of Missouri 

R. Snyder 
ARISE, Inc. 

H. Titer 

MIRANT Mid-Atlantic 

H. Tyndall 

Zurich Services Corp. 



VI 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Subcommittee for inspection (Part 2) 



D. Cook, Chair 
State of California 


D. Parrish 
FM Global 


S. Bacon 

Conoco Phillips-Femdale Refinery 


R. Reetz 

State of North Dakota 


D. Canonico 
Canonico & Associates 


J. Richardson 
Consultant-Dresser, Inc. 


J. Getter 
Worthington Cylinders 


J. Riley 

Chevron Energy and Technology 


G. McRae 

Trinity Industries, Inc. 


M. Schwartzwalder 
AEP 


V. Newton 
Chubb & Son 


S. Staniszewski 

US Department of Transportation 


T. Barker 
FM Global 


R. Wacker 
Dupont 


M. Horbaczewski 
Midwest Generation 


M. Mooney 

Liberty Mutual Insurance 



Subgroup for Inspection (Part 2) 




General Requirements 


Specific Requirements 


J. Getter, Chair 
Worthington Cylinders 


S. Staniszewski 

US Department of Transportation 


D. Canonico 
Canonico & Associates 


S. Bacon 

Conoco Phillips-Ferndale Refinery 


R. Dobbins 
Zurich N.A. 


D. Cook 

State of California 


M. Horbaczewski 
Midwest Generation 


R. Dobbins 
Zurich N.A. 


D. Parrish 
FM Global 


). Getter 
Worthington Cylinders 


J. Richardson 
Consultant-Dresser, Inc. 


G. McRae 

Trinity Industries, Inc. 




J. Riley 

Chevron Energy and Technology 




M. Schwartzwalder 
AEP 




R. Wacker 
Dupont 



VII 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE 



Subcommittee for Repai 


rs and Alterations (Part 3) 


G. Galanes, Chair 

Midwest Generation EME, LLC 




F. Paviovicz 

The Babcock & Wilcox Company 


P. Edwards 

Stone & Webster, Inc. 




J. Pillow -Vice Chair 
Common Arc Corporation 


J. Given 

State of North Carolina 




B. Schulte 
NRC Texas, LP 


Wayne Jones 
Arise, Inc. 




J. Sekely 

Wayne Crouse Inc. 


J. Larson 

OneBeacon America Insurance 


Company 


M. Webb 
Xcel Energy 



Subgr oup for Repairs and Alterations (Part 3) 



General Requirements 


Specific Requirements 


P. Edwards, Chair 


J. Sekely 


Stone & Webster, Inc. 


Wayne Crouse Inc. 


J. Larson 


G. Galanes 


One Beacon America Insurance Company 


Midwest Generation EME, LLC 


R. Pulliam 


J. Given 


The Babcock & Wilcox Company 


State of North Carolina 


B. Schuite 


W. Jones 


NRC Texas, LP 


ARISE, Inc. 


M. Webb 


F. Paviovicz 


Xcel Energy 


The Babcock & Wilcox Company 


B. Boseo 


J. Pillow, Chair 


Alstom/AP ComPower Inc. 


Common Arc Corporation 


Brian Morelock 


B. Boseo 


Eastman Chemical 


Alstom/AP ComPower Inc. 




Michael Huffman 




American Welding & Tank 



VII 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Subcommittee for Pressure Relief Devices (Parts 1, 2, and 3) 


F. Hart, Chair 
Furmanite America Inc. 


R. Donalson 

Tyco Valves and Controls 


A. Cox 
Industrial Value 


K. Fitzsimmons 
Carter Chambers, LLC 


J. Ball 

The National Board of Boiler and 

Pressure Vessel Inspectors 


G. Humphries 
Oxy Vinyls, LP 


M. Brodeur 

International Valve & Instr. Corp. 


R. McCaffrey 
Quality Valve 


S. Cammeresi 
CCR. 


T. Patel 

Farris Engineering 


D. DeMichael 
DuPont 





Special Subgroups for Installation, Inspection, and Repairs and Alterations (Parts 1, 2, and 3) 



Locomotive Boilers 




B. Withuhn, Chair 
Smithsonian Institution 


S.Lee 

Union Pacific Railroad 


S. Butler 

Midwest Locomotive & Machine 

Works 


D. McCormack 
Consultant 


D. Conrad 

Valley Railroad Co. 


L. Moedinger 
Strasburg Railroad 


R. Franzen 

Steam Services of America 


R. Reetz 

State of North Dakota 


D. Criner 

Wasatch Railroad Contractors 


G. Scerbo 

Federal Railroad Administration 


S. Jackson 
D&SNC 


R. Schueler 

The National Board of Boiler and Pres- 
sure Vessel Inspectors 


M. Janssen 

Vapor Locomotive Company 


R. Stone 

ABB/Combustion Engineering 




R.Yuill 
Consultant 



Historical Boilers 




R. Reetz, Chair 
State of North Dakota 


D. Cook 

State of California 


T. Dillion 
Deltak 


B. Babcock 
Consultant 


M. Wahl 
WHSEA 


D. Rupert 
Consultant 


J. Larson 

One Beacon America Insurance 

Company 


S. Bacon 

Conoco Phillips-Ferndale Refinery 


F. Johnson 
PCS Phosphate 





NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Special Subgroups for Instal lat ion,, Inspection, a nd Repairs and Alterations (Parts 1, 2, and 3) 



Graphite 

E. Soltow, Chair 

SGL Carbon Croup/SCL Technic 

W. Banker 

Graphite Repairs, Inc • 

F. Brown 

The National Board of Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

K. Cummins 
Louisville Graphite 

S. Malone 
Carbone of America 

M. Minick 

One CIS Insurance 

A. Stupica 

SCL Carbon Croup/SCL Technic 

T. Bonn 

Carbone of America 



Fiber-Reinforced Pressure Vessels 

B. Shelley, Chair 
DuPont 

F. Brown 

The National Board of Boiler and 

Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

J. Bustillos 

Bustillos and Consultants 



D. Eisberg 

Energy Recovery Inc. 

T. Fowler 
Retired/Spicewood, TX 

D. Keeler 

The Dow Chemical Company 

R. Lewandowski 

Corrosion Resistant Composites 

H. Marsh 
Consultant 

J. Richter 

FEMech Engineering 

D. Cook 

State of California 

N. Newhouse 
Lincoln Composites 

D. Hodgkinson 
Consultant 

M. Gorman 
Digital Wave 

R. Crawford 
L&M Fiberglass 

T. Cowley 
Dupont 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



National Board Inspection Code 
2007 Edition including 2008 and 2009 Addendum 

Date of Issue — December 31, 2009 

This code was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American 
National Standards. The Consensus Committee that approved the code was balanced to ensure 
that individuals from competent and concerned interests had an opportunity to participate. The 
proposed code was made available for public review and comment, which provided an 
opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory and jurisdictional 
agencies, and the public-at-large. 

The National Board does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, 
proprietary device, or activity. 

The National Board does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights 
asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake 
to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable Letters 
Patent, nor assume any such liability. Users of a code are expressly advised that determination 
of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely 
their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be 
interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code. 

The National Board accepts responsibility for only those interpretations issued in accordance 
with governing National Board procedures and policies that preclude the issuance of 
interpretations by individual committee members. 

The footnotes in this document are part of this American National Standard. 







ri 
i i 



in 

Vv 



® 



The above National Board symbols are registered with the US Patent Office. 

"National Board" is the abbreviation for The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Inspectors. 

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or 
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



XI 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



XII 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Foreword 

The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors is an organization comprised of 
Chief Inspectors for the states, cities, and territories of the United States and provinces and 
territories of Canada. It is organized for the purpose of promoting greater safety to life and 
property by securing concerted action and maintaining uniformity in post-construction 
activities of pressure-retaining items, thereby ensuring acceptance and interchangeability 
among Jurisdictional authorities responsible for the administration and enforcement of various 
codes and standards. 

In keeping with the principles of promoting safety and maintaining uniformity, the National 
Board originally published The NBIC in 1 946, establishing rules for inspection and repairs to 
boilers and pressure vessels. The National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) Committee is charged 
with the responsibility for maintaining and revising the NBIC. In the interest of public safety, 
the NBIC Committee decided, in 1 995, to revise the scope of the NBIC to include rules for 
installation, inspection, and repair or alteration to boilers, pressure vessels, piping, and 
nonmetallic materials. 

In 2007, the NBIC was restructured into three Parts specifically identifying important post- 
construction activities involving safety of pressure-retaining items. This restructuring provides for 
future expansion, transparency, and uniformity, ultimately improving public safety. 

The NBIC Committee's function is to establish rules of safety governing post-construction activities 
for the installation, inspection and repair and alteration of pressure-retaining items, and to interpret 
these rules when questions arise regarding their intent. In formulating the rules, the NBIC 
Committee considers the needs and concerns of individuals and organizations involved in the 
safety of pressure-retaining items. The objective of the rules is to afford reasonably certain 
protection of life and property, so as to give a reasonably long, safe period of usefulness. 
Advancements in design and material and the evidence of experience are recognized. 

The rules established by the NBIC Committee are not to be interpreted as approving, 
recommending, or endorsing any proprietary or specific design, or as limiting in any way an 
organization's freedom to choose any method that conforms to the NBIC rules. 

The NBIC Committee meets regularly to consider revisions of existing rules, formulation of new 
rules, and respond to requests for interpretations. Requests for interpretation must be addressed 
to the NBIC Secretary in writing and must give full particulars in order to receive Committee 
consideration and a written reply. Proposed revisions to the Code resulting from inquiries will 
be presented to the NBIC Committee for appropriate action. 

Proposed revisions to the Code approved by the NBIC Committee are submitted to the 
American National Standards Institute and published on the National Board Web site to 
invite comments from all interested persons. After the allotted time for public review and final 
approval, revisions are published annually in Addenda to the NBIC. 

Organizations or users of pressure-retaining items are cautioned against making use of 
revisions that are less restrictive than former requirements without having assurance that they 
have been accepted by the Jurisdiction where the pressure-retaining item is installed. 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



The general philosophy underlying the NBIC is to parallel those provisions of the original code 
of construction, as they can be applied to post-construction activities. 

The NBIC does not contain rules to cover all details of post-construction activities. Where 
complete details are not given, it is intended that individuals or organizations, subject to the 
acceptance of the Inspector and Jurisdiction when applicable, provide details for post- 
construction activities that will be as safe as otherwise provided by the rules in the original 
Code of Construction. 

Activities not conforming to the rules of the original code of construction or the NBIC must 
receive specific approval of the Jurisdiction, who may establish requirements for design, 
construction, inspection, testing, and documentation. 

There are instances where the NBIC serves to warn against pitfalls; but the Code is not a hand- 
book, and cannot substitute for education, experience, and sound engineering judgment. 

It is intended that this Edition of the NBIC and any subsequent Addenda not be retroactive. 
Unless the Jurisdiction imposes the use of an earlier edition, the latest effective edition and 
addenda is the governing document. 



XIV 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Introduction 

It is the purpose of the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC) to maintain the integrity of 
pressure-retaining items by providing rules for installation, and after the items have been 
placed into service, by providing rules for inspection and repair and alteration, thereby 
ensuring that these items may continue to be safely used. 

The NBIC is intended to provide rules, information and guidance to manufacturers, 
Jurisdictions, inspectors, owner-users, installers, contractors, and other individuals and 
organizations performing or involved in post-construction activities, thereby encouraging the 
uniform administration of rules pertaining to pressure-retaining items. 

Scope 

The NBIC recognizes three important areas of post-construction activities where information, 
understanding, and following specific requirements will promote public and personal safety. 
These areas include: 

• Installation 

• Inspection 

• Repairs and Alterations 

The NBIC provides rules, information, and guidance for post-construction activities, but does 
not provide details for all conditions involving pressure-retaining items. Where complete de- 
tails are not provided in this Code, the Code user is advised to seek guidance from the Jurisdic- 
tion and from other technical sources. 

The words shall, should, and may are used throughout the NBIC and have the following intent: 

• Shall - action that is mandatory and required. 

• Should - indicates a preferred but not mandatory means to accomplish the requirement 
unless specified by others such as the Jurisdiction. 

8 May - permissive, not required or a means to accomplish the specified task. 

Organization 

The NBIC is organized into three Parts to coincide with specific post-construction activities 
involving pressure-retaining items. Each Part provides general and specific rules, information, 
and guidance within each applicable post-construction activity. Other NBIC Parts or other 
published standards may contain additional information or requirements needed to meet the 
rules of the NBIC. Specific references are provided in each Part to direct the user where to find 
this additional information. NBIC Parts are identified as: 

• Part 1, Installation -This Part provides requirements and guidance to ensure all types of 
pressure-retaining items are installed and function properly. Installation includes 
meeting specific safety criteria for construction, materials, design, supports, safety 
devices, operation, testing, and maintenance. 

• Part 2, Inspection -This Part provides information and guidance needed to perform and 
document inspections for all types of pressure-retaining items. This Part includes 
information on personnel safety, non-destructive examination, tests, failure 
mechanisms, types of pressure equipment, fitness for service, risk-based assessments, 
and performance-based standards. 



XV 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



• Part 3, Repairs and Alterations -This Part provides information and guidance to 
perform, verify, and document acceptable repairs or alterations to pressure-retaining 
items regardless of code of construction. Alternative methods for examination, testing, 
heat treatment, etc., are provided when the original code of construction requirements 
cannot be met. Specific acceptable and proven repair methods are also provided. 

Each NBIC Part is divided into major Sections as outlined in the Table of Contents. 

Tables, charts, and figures provide relevant illustrations or supporting information for text 
passages, and are designated with numbers corresponding to the paragraph they illustrate or 
support within each Section. Multiple tables, charts, or figures referenced by the same 
paragraph will have additional letters reflecting the order of reference. Tables, charts, and 
figures are located in or after each major Section within each NBIC Part. 



Text identification and Numbering 

Each page in the text will be designated in the top header with the publication's name, part 
number, and part title. The numbering sequence for each section begins with the section 
number followed by a dot to further designate major sections (e.g., 1.1, 1 .2, 1 .3). Major 
sections are further subdivided using dots to designate subsections within that major section 
(e.g., 1.1.1, 1.2.1, 1.3.1). Subsections can further be divided as necessary. 

Paragraphs under sections or subsections shall be designated with small letters in parenthesis 
(e.g., a), b), c)) and further subdivided using numbers in parenthesis (e.g., 1), 2), 3)). 
Subdivisions of paragraphs beyond this point will be designated using a hierarchical sequence 
of letters and numbers followed by a dot. 

Example: 2.1 Major Section 

2.1.1 Section 

2.1.2 Section 

2.1.2. Subsection 

a) paragraph 

b) paragraph 

1) subparagraph 

2) subparagraph 

a. subdivisions 

1. subdivisions 

2. subdivisions 

b. subdivisions 

1. subdivisions 

2. subdivisions 

Tables and figures will be designated with the referencing section or subsection identification. 
When more than one table or figure is referenced in the same section or subsection, letters or 
numbers in sequential order will be used following each section or subsection identification. 



XVI 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



Supplements 

Supplements are contained in each Part of the NBIC to designate information only pertaining to 
a specific type of pressure-retaining item (e.g., Locomotive Boilers, Historical Boilers, Graphite 
Pressure Vessels.) Supplements follow the same numbering system used for the main text only 
preceded by the Letter "S." Each page of the supplement will identify the supplement number 
and name in the top heading. 



Addenda 

Addenda, which include revisions and additions to this Code, are published annually. Addenda 
are permissive on the date issued and become mandatory six months after the date of issue. 
The addenda will be sent automatically to purchasers of the Code up to the publication of the 
next edition. Every three years the NBIC is published as a new edition that includes that year's 
addenda. 



Interpretations 

On request, the NBIC Committee will render an interpretation of any requirement of this Code. 
Interpretations are provided for each Part and are specific to the Code edition and addenda 
referenced in the interpretation. Interpretations provide information only and are not part of 
this Code. 



jurisdictional Precedence 

Reference is made throughout this Code to the requirements of the "Jurisdiction." Where any 
provision herein presents a direct or implied conflict with any jurisdictional regulation, the 
jurisdictional regulation shall govern. 



Units of Measurement 

Both U.S. customary units and metric units are used in the NBIC. The value stated in U.S. custom- 
ary units or metric units are to be regarded separately as the standard. Within the text, the met- 
ric units are shown in parentheses. In supplement 6, Continued Service and Inspection of DOT 
Transport Tanks, the metric units are shown first with the U.S. customary units shown in parentheses. 

U.S. customary units or metric units may be used with this edition of the NBIC, but one system 
of units shall be used consistently throughout a repair or alteration of pressure-retaining items. 
It is the responsibility of National Board accredited repair organizations to ensure the 
appropriate units are used consistently throughout all phases of work. This includes materials, 
design, procedures, testing, documentation, and stamping. The NBIC policy for metrication is 
outlined in each part of the NBIC. 



Accreditation Programs 

The National Board administers and accredits three specific repair programs 1 as shown below: 

"R" Repairs and Alterations to Pressure-Retaining Items 

"VR" Repairs to Pressure Relief Valves 

"NR" Repair and Replacement Activities for Nuclear Items 



1 Caution, some Jurisdictions may independently administer a program of authorization for organizations to perform repairs and 
alterations within that Jurisdiction. 

XVII 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 

Part 3, Repairs and Alterations, of the NBIC describes the administrative requirements for the 
accreditation of these repair organizations. 

The National Board also administers and accredits four specific inspection agency programs as 
shown below: 

New Construction 

Criteria for Acceptance of Authorized Inspection Agencies for New Construction 

(NB-360) 
Inservice 

Qualifications and Duties for Authorized Inspection Agencies (AlAs) Performing Inservice 

Inspection Activities and Qualifications for Inspectors of Boilers and Pressure Vessels 

(NB-369) 
Owner-User 

Accreditation of Owner-User Inspection Organizations (OUIO) (NB-371 ) Owners or users 

may be accredited for both a repair and inspection program provided the requirements 

for each accreditation program are met. 
Federal Government 

Qualifications and Duties for Federal Inspection Agencies Performing Inservice Inspection 

Activities (FIAs) (NB-390) 



These programs can be viewed on the National Board Web site. For questions or further infor- 
mation regarding these programs contact: 

The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

1055 Crupper Avenue 

Columbus, OH 43229-1 183 

Phone — 614.888.8320 

Fax — 614.847.1828 

Web site — www.nationalboard.org 



Certificates of Authorization for Accreditation Programs 

Any organization seeking an accredited program may apply to the National Board to obtain a 
Certificate of Authorization for the requested scope of activities. A confidential review shall be 
conducted to evaluate the organization's quality system. Upon completion of the evaluation, 
a recommendation will be made to the National Board regarding issuance of a Certificate of 
Authorization. 

Certificate of Authorization scope, issuance, and revisions for National Board accreditation 
programs are specified in the applicable National Board procedures. When the quality system 
requirements of the appropriate accreditation program have been met, a Certificate of 
Authorization and appropriate National Board symbol stamp shall be issued. 



XVIII 




Part 2 — Inspection 



All charts, graphs, tables, and other criteria that have been 
reprinted from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 
Sections I, IV, VIII, and X are used with the permission of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All Rights 
Reserved. 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE - PART 2 — INSPECTION 

PART 2 — INSPECTION 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

National Board Contact Information II 

NB Board of Trustees /Advisory Committee Members Ill 

National Board Members IV 

NBIC Committee Structure v 

National Board Inspection Code Edition /Addendum XI 

Foreword XII 

Introduction XIV 

Section 1 General Requirements for Inservice Inspection of Pressure-Retaining Items 13 

1 .1 Scope 14 

1 .2 Administration 14 

1 .3 Reference to Other Codes and Standards 14 

1 .4 Personnel Safety 14 

1 .4.1 Personal Safety Requirements for Entering Confined Spaces 1 5 

1 .4.2 Equipment Operation 16 

1 .5 Inspection Activities 16 

1 .5.1 Inservice Inspection Activities 16 

1 .5.2 Pre4nspection Activities 16 

1.5.3 Preparation for Internal Inspection 16 

1 .5.4 Post4nspection Activities 1 7 

Section 2 Detailed Requirements for Inservice Inspection of Pressure-Retaining Items 1 9 

2.1 Scope 20 

2.2 Boilers 20 

2.2.1 Scope 20 

2.2.2 Service Conditions 20 

2.2.3 Pre-lnspection Activities 20 

2.2.4 Condition of Boiler Room or Boiler Location 20 

2.2.5 External Inspection 20 

2.2.6 Internal Inspection 21 

2.2.7 Evidence of Leakage 21 

2.2.8 Boiler Corrosion Considerations 21 

2.2.9 Waterside Deposits 22 

2.2.10 Inspection of Boiler Piping, Parts, and Appurtenances 23 

2.2.10.1 Boiler Piping 23 

2.2.10.3 Flanged or Other Connections 23 

2.2.10.4 Miscellaneous 23 

2.2.10.4 Gages 23 

2.2.10.5 Pressure Relief Devices 24 

2.2.10.6 Controls 24 

2.2.1 1 Records Review 25 

2.2.12 Description and Concerns of Specific Types of Boilers 25 

2.2.12.1 Cast-Iron Boilers 25 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE * PART 2 — INSPECTION 



2.2.12.2 Firetube Boilers 26 

2.2.12.3 Watertube Boilers 28 

2.2.12.4 Electric Boilers 29 

2.2.12.5 Fired Coil Heaters 29 

2.2.12.6 Fired Storage Water Heaters 29 

2.2.12.7 Thermal Fluid Heaters 30 

2.2.12.8 Waste Heat Boilers 32 

2.2.12.9 Kraft or Sulfate Black Liquor Recovery Boilers 33 

2.3 Pressure Vessels 35 

2.3.1 Scope 35 

2.3.2 Service Conditions 35 

2.3.3 External Inspection 36 

2.3.4 Internal Inspection 37 

2.3.5 Inspection of Pressure Vessel Parts and Appurtenances 37 

2.3.5.1 Gages 38 

2.3.5.2 Safety Devices 38 

2.3.5.3 Controls/Devices 38 

2.3.5.4 Records Review 38 

2.3.6 Description and Concerns of Specific Types of Pressure Vessels 39 

2.3.6.1 Deaerators 39 

2.3.6.2 Compressed Air Vessels 39 

2.3.6.3 Expansion Tanks 40 

2.3.6.4 Liquid Ammonia Vessels. 40 

2.3.6.5 Inspection of Pressure Vessels with 

Quick-Actuating Closures 42 

2.4 Piping and Piping Systems 44 

2.4.1 Scope 44 

2.4.2 Service Conditions 45 

2.4.3 Assessment of Piping Design 45 

2.4.4 External Inspection of Piping 45 

2.4.5 Internal Inspection of Piping 46 

2.4.6 Evidence of Leakage 46 

2.4.7 Provisions for Expansion and Support 46 

2.4.8 Inspection of Gages, Safety Devices, and Controls 46 

2.4.8.1 Gages 46 

2.4.8.2 Safety Devices 46 

2.4.8.3 Quick-Disconnect Coupling 47 

2.5 Pressure Relief Devices • 47 

2.5.1 Scope 47 

2.5.2 Pressure Relief Device Data 47 

2.5.3 Inservice Inspection Requirements for Pressure Relief 

Devices Conditions 47 

2.5.4 Inservice Inspection Requirements for Pressure Relief Devices 
Installation Condition 48 

2.5.5 Additional Inspection Requirements 48 

2.5.5.1 Boilers 48 

2.5.5.2 Pressure Vessels and Piping 49 

2.5.5.3 Rupture Disks 49 

2.5.6 Packaging, Shipping and Transportation 51 

2.5.7 Testing and Operational Inspection of Pressure Relief Devices 51 

2.5.8 Recommended Inspection and Test Frequencies for 

Pressure Relief Devices 53 

Section 3 Corrosion and Failure Mechanisms 57 

3.1 Scope 58 

3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 

3.2 General 5g 

3.3 Corrosion 5g 

3.3.1 Macroscopic Corrosion Environments 58 

3.3.2 Microscopic Corrosion Environments 59 

3.3.3 Control of Corrosion 60 

3.3.3.1 Process Variables 60 

3.3.3.2 Protection 60 

3.3.3.3 Material Selection 60 

3.3.3.4 Coatings 61 

3.3.3.5 Engineering Design 61 

3.3.3.6 Conclusion 61 

3.4 Failure Mechanisms 62 

3.4.1 Fatigue 62 

3.4.2 Creep 62 

3.4.3 Temperature Effects 62 

3.4.4 Hydrogen Embrittlement 62 

3.4.5 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack 63 

3.4.6 Hydrogen Damage 64 

3.4.7 Bulges and Blisters 64 

3.4.8 Overheating 54 

3.4.9 Cracks 65 

Section 4 Examinations, Test Methods, and Evaluations 67 

4.1 Scope 68 

4.2 Nondestructive Examination Methods (NDE) 68 

4.2.1 Visual .........68 

4.2.2 Magnetic Particle 68 

4.2.3 Liquid Penetrant 69 

4.2.4 Ultrasonic 69 

4.2.5 Radiography 69 

4.2.6 Eddy Current 70 

4.2.7 Metallographic 70 

4.2.8 Acoustic Emission 70 

4.3 Testing Methods 70 

4.3.1 Pressure Testing 70 

4.3.2 Leak Testing y\ 

4.3.3 Evidence of Leakage in a Boiler 71 

4.4 Methods to Assess Damage Mechanisms and Inspection Frequency 

for Pressure-Retaining Items 72 

4.4.1 Scope 72 

4.4.2 General Requirements 73 

4.4.3 Responsiblities 73 

4.4.4 Remaining Service Life Assessment Methodology 73 

4.4.5 Data Requirements for Remaining Service Life Assessments 74 

4.4.6 Identification of Damage Mechanisms 75 

4.4.7 Determining Inspection Intervals 75 

4.4.7.1 Method for Estimating Inspection Intervals for 
Pressure-Retaining Items Subject to Erosion 

or Corrosion 75 

4.4.7.2 Method for Estimating Inspection Intervals 

for Exposure to Corrosion 76 

4.4.7.3 Estimating Inspection Intervals for Pressure-Retaining 
Items Where Corrosion Is Not a Factor 79 

4.4.8 Evaluating Inspection Intervals of Pressure-Retaining Items 

Exposed to Inservice Failure Mechanisms 79 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



4.4.8.1 Exposure to Elevated Temperature (Creep) 79 

4.4.8.2 Exposure to Brittle Fracture 80 

4.4.8.3 Evaluating Conditions That Cause 
Bulges/Blisters/Laminations 80 

4.4.8.4 Evaluating Crack-Like Indications in Pressure- 
Retaining Items 80 

4.4.8.5 Evaluating Exposure of a Pressure-Retaining Item to 

Fire Damage 81 

4.4.8.6 Evaluating Exposure of Pressure-Retaining Items to 

Cyclic Fatigue 82 

4.4.8.7 Evaluating Pressure-Retaining Items Containing Local 

Thin Areas 82 

4.5 Risk-Based Inspection Assessment Programs 83 

4.5.1 Scope 83 

4.5.2 Definitions 83 

4.5.3 General 83 

4.5.4 Considerations 84 

4.5.5 Key Elements of an RBI Assessment Program 84 

4.5.6 RBI Assessment 85 

4.5.6.1 Probability of Failure 85 

4.5.6.2 Consequence of Failure 85 

4.5.6.3 Risk Evaluation 85 

4.5.6.4 Risk Management 86 

4.5.7 Jurisdictional Relationships 86 

Section 5 Stamping, Documentation, and Forms 87 

5.1 Scope 88 

5.2 Replacement of Stamping During Inservice Inspection 88 

5.2.1 Authorization 88 

5.2.2 Replacement of Stamped Data 88 

5.2.3 Reporting 88 

5.3 National Board Inspection Forms 88 

5.3.1 Scope 88 

5.3.2 Replacement of Stamped Data Form (NB-1 36) 89 

5.3.3 New Business or Discontinuance of Business Form (N'B-4) 91 

5.3.4 Boiler or Pressure Vessel Data Report Form (NB-5) 93 

5.3.5 Boiler-Fired Pressure Vessels Report of Inspection Form (NB-6) 95 

5.3.6 Pressure Vessels Report of Inspection Form (NB-7) 97 

5.3.7 Report of Fitness For Service Assessment Form (NB-403) 99 

5.3.7.1 Guide For Completing Fitness For Service 

Assessment Reports 101 

Section 6 Supplements 103 

6.1 Scope 104 

Supp. 1 Steam Locomotive Firetube Boiler Inspection and Storage 104 

SI .1 Scope 104 

51 .2 Special Jurisdictional Requirements 104 

51 .3 Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) 105 

51 .4 Locomotive Firetube Boiler Inspection 105 

51.4.1 Inspection Methods 105 

51 .4.2 Inspection Zones 106 

51 .4.2.1 Riveted Seams and Rivet Heads 106 

51 .4.2.2 Welded and Riveted Repairs 107 

51.4.2.3 Boiler Shell Course 107 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



51.4.2.4 Dome and Dome Lid 107 

51.4.2.5 Mudring 108 

51.4.2.6 Flue Sheets 108 

51 .4.2.7 Flanged Sheets 108 

51 .4.2.8 Stayed Sheets 108 

51 .4.2.9 Staybolts 109 

51 .4.2.10 Flexible Staybolts and Sleeves 109 

51 .4.2.1 1 Girder Stay and Crown Bars 110 

SI .4.2.1 2 Sling Stays 111 

S1 .4.2.13 Crown Stays and Expansion Stays 1 1 1 

SI .4.2.14 Diagonal and Gusset Braces 1 12 

SI .4.2.1 5 Flues 112 

S1 .4.2.16 Superheater Units and Header 112 

SI .4.2.1 7 Arch Tubes, Water Bar Tubes, and Circulators 113 

SI .4.2.1 8 Thermic Syphons 1 13 

51 .4.2.1 9 Firebox Refractory 113 

51 .4.2.20 Dry Pipe 113 

SI .4.2.21 Throttle and Throttle Valve '. 114 

51 .4.2.22 Screw-Type Washout Plugs, Holes, and Sleeves 1 1 4 

51.4.2.23 Handhole Washout Doors 114 

51 .4.2.24 Threaded and Welded Attachment Studs 1 1 5 

51.4.2.25 Fusible Plugs 115 

51 .4.2.26 Water Glass, Water Column, and Gage Cocks 1 1 5 

51 .4.2.27 Steam Pressure Gage 1 15 

SI .4.2.28 Boiler Fittings and Piping 116 

51 .4.2.29 Boiler Attachment Brackets 116 

51.4.2.30 Fire Door 116 

51 .4.2.31 Grates and Grate Operating Mechanism 116 

51 .4.2.32 Smokebox 117 

51 .4.2.33 Smokebox Steam Pipes 1 1 7 

51 .4.2.34 Ash Pan and Fire Pan 1 1 7 

S1.4.3 Method of Checking Height of Water Gage Glass 117 

51 .4.3.1 Water Height Measurement Method 117 

51 .4.3.2 Flexible Spirit Level Method 1 1 8 

SI .5 Guidelines for Steam Locomotive Storage 1 1 9 

51 .5.1 Storage Methods 120 

51 .5.2 Wet Storage Method 120 

51 .5.3 Dry Storage Method 120 

51.5.4 Recommended General Preservation Procedures 121 

51 .5.5 Use of Compressed Air to Drain Locomotive Components 1 22.2 

51 .5.6 Return to Service 123 

Supp. 2 Historical Boilers 124 

52.1 Scope 124 

52.2 Introduction 124 

52.3 Responsibilities 124 

52.4 General Inspection Requirements 124 

52.4.1 Pre-lnspection Requirements 124 

52.4.2 Post-Inspection Activities 125 

52.4.3 Boiler Operators 125 

52.4.4 Examinations andTests 126 

52.4.4.1 Nondestructive Examination Methods 126 

52.4.4.2 Testing Methods 126 

52.5 Specific Examination andTest Methods 126 

S2.5.1 Specific Examination Methods 126 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z INSPECTION 



52.5.2 Visual Examination 126 

52.5.2.1 Preparation for Visual Inspection 126 

52.5.2.2 Visual Examination Requirements 127 

52.5.3 Ultrasonic Examination 127 

52.5.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination 127 

52.5.5 Magnetic Particle Examination 127 

52.6 Specific Testing Methods 127 

52.6.1 Hydrostatic Pressure Testing 127 

52.6.2 Ultrasonic Thickness Testing 128 

52.7 Inspections 128 

52.7.1 Inservice Inspections 128 

52.7.2 Inservice Inspection Documentation 129 

52.7.3 Inspection Intervals 129 

52.7.3.1 Initial Inspection 129 

52.7.3.2 Subsequent Inspections 129 

52.8 Safety Devices — General Requirements 1 30 

52.8.1 Safety Valves 130 

52.8.2 Gage Class 131 

52.8.3 Try-Cocks 131 

52.8.4 Fusible Plug 131 

52.8.5 Pressure Gage 131 

52.9 Appurtenances - Piping, Fittings, and Valves 132 

S2.9.1 Piping, Fittings, and Valve Replacements 132 

52.10 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) 132 

52.10.1 Strength 132 

52.10.2 Rivets 133 

52.10.3 Cylindrical Components 133 

52.10.4 Stayed Surfaces 140 

S2.1 0.4.1 Staybolts 140 

52.10.5 Construction Code 140 

52.10.6 Nomenclature 140 

52.10.7 Limitations 143 

52.1 1 Boiler Inspection Guideline , 143 

52.12 Initial Boiler Certification Report Form 148 

52.13 Guidelines for Historical Boiler Storage 148 

52.13.1 Storage Methods 148 

52.13.1.1 Wet Storage Method 148 

52.13.1.2 Dry Storage Method 149 

52.13.2 Recommended General Preservation Procedures 150 

52.13.3 Use of Compressed Air to Drain Historical Boiler Components 152 

52.13.4 Return to Service 152 

52.14 Safety Procedures 153 

52.14.1 Experience 153 

52.14.2 Stopping Engine in an Emergency 154 

52.14.3 Water Glass Breakage 154 

52.14.4 Runaway Engine and Governor Over Speed 155 

52.14.5 Killing a Fire 155 

52.14.6 Injector Problems 155 

52.14.7 Foaming or Priming Boiler 157 

52.14.8 Handhole Gasket Blows Out 157 

52.14.9 Tube Burst 158 

52.14.10 Leaking Valves 158 

52.14.11 Broken Pipes 158 

52.14.12 Safety Valve Problems 158 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



52.14.13 Safety Valve Opens but will not Close 158 

52.14.14 Leaking Pipe Plugs 159 

52.1 4.1 5 Melted Grates 159 

Supp. 3 Inspection of Graphite Pressure Equipment 1 63 

53.1 Scope 163 

53. 2 Application 163 

53. 3 Operations 163 

53. 4 Inservice Inspection 163 

Supp. 4 Inspection of Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic Pressure Equipment 1 65 

54.1 Scope 165 

54.2 Inservice Inspection 165 

54.3 General 165 

54.4 Visual Examination 165 

54.5 Inspector Qualifications 166 

54.6 Assessment of Installation 166 

54.6.1 Preparation 1 66 

54.6.2 Leakage 167 

54.6.3 Tools 167 

54.7 External Inspection 1 67 

54.7.1 Insulation or Other Coverings 1 67 

54.7.2 Exposed Surfaces 1 67 

54.7.3 Structural Attachments 1 68 

54.8 Internal Inspection 168 

54.8.1 General 168 

54.8.2 Specific Areas of Concern 1 68 

54.9 Inspection Frequency 1 68 

54.9.1 Newly Installed Equipment 169 

54.9.2 Previously Repaired or Altered Equipment 1 69 

S4.10 Photographs of Typical Conditions 1 70 

Supp. 5 Inspection of Yankee Dryers (Rotating Cast-iron Pressure Vessels) with 

Finished Shell Outer Surfaces 186 

55.1 Scope 186 

55.2 Assessment of Installation 186 

55.2.1 Determination of Allowable Operating Parameters 1 88 

55.2.2 Adjusting the Maximum Allowable Operating Parameters of 
the Yankee Dryer Due to a Reduction in Shell Thickness from 
Grinding or Machining 189 

55.2.3 Documentation of Shell Thickness and Adjusted Maximum 
Allowable Operating Parameters 1 90 

55.3 Causes of Deterioration and Damage 1 90 

55.3.1 Local Thinning 190 

55.3.2 Cracking 191 

55.3.2.1 Through Joints and Bolted Connections 1 91 

55.3.2.2 Through-Wall Leakage 191 

55.3.2.3 Impact From Objects Passing Through The Yankee/ 
Pressure Roll Nip 192 

55.3.2.4 Stress Magnification Around Drilled Holes 192 

55.3.2.5 Thermal Stress and/or Micro-Structural Change From 
Excessive Local Heating and Cooling 1 92 

55.3.2.6 Joint Interface Corrosion 1 92 

55.3.2.7 Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Structural Bolts 1 93 

55.3.3 Corrosion 193 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



55.4 Inspections 193 

55.5 Nondestructive Examination 193 

55.6 Pressure Testing 194 

Supp. 6 Continued Service and Inspection of DOT Transport Tanks 195 

56.1 Scope 195 

56.2 Terminology 195 

56.3 Administration 195 

56.4 Inspection 195 

56.4.1 Scope 195 

56.4.2 General Requirements for Inspectors 195 

56.4.3 Registration of Inspectors 1 96 

56.4.4 Qualifications of Inspectors 196 

56.4.5 Codes of Construction 196 

56.4.6 Inspector Duties for Continued Service Inspections 1 96 

56.4.6.1 Inspector Duties for Continued Service Inspection 

of Cargo Tanks 1 97 

56.4.6.2 Inspector Duties for Continued Service Inspection 

of PortableTanks 197 

56.4.6.3 Inspector Duties for Continued Service Inspections 

of Ton Tanks 198 

56.4.7 Continued Service, Inspection for DOT Transport Tanks Scope 198 

56.4.7.1 Administration 198 

56.4.7.2 Inspection and Test Required Frequencies 198 

56.4.7.3 External Visual and Pressure Tests 198 

56.4.7.4 Leak Tightness Testing of Transport Tanks 198 

56.4.7.4.1 Cargo Tanks 198 

56.4.7.4.2 PortableTanks 199 

56.4.7.4.3 Ton Tanks 199 

56. 4. 7.4.4 Leak Tightness Testing of Valves 199 

56.4.7.4.4.1 Cargo Tanks 199 

56.4.7.4.4.2 PortableTanks 199 

56.4. 7.4.4.3 Ton Tanks 200 

56.4.7.5 Leak Tightness Testing of Safety Relief Devices 200 

56.4.7.5.1 Cargo Tanks 200 

56.4.7.5.2 PortableTanks 200 

56.4.7.5.3 Ton Tanks 201 

56.4.7.6 Testing of Miscellaneous Pressure Parts 201 

56.4.7.6.1 Cargo Tanks 201 

56.4.7.6.2 Portable Tank 201 

56.4.7.6.3 Ton Tanks 201 

56.4.7.7 Acceptance Criteria 201 

56.4.7.8 Inspection Report 202 

56.4.7.8.1 Cargo Tanks 202 

56.4. 7.8.2 PortableTanks 202 

56.4.7.8.3 Ton Tanks 202 

56.5 Stamping and Record Requirements for DOT Transport Tanks in 

Continued Service 202 

56.5.1 General 202 

56.5.2 Stamping 202 

56.5.3 Owner or User Required Records For Cargo Tanks 203 

S6.5.3.1 Reporting Requirements by the Owner or User of 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECT 



Tests and Inspections of DOT Specification 

Cargo Tanks 205 

S6.5.3.2 DOT Marking Requirements for Test and Inspections 

of DOT Specification Cargo Tanks 205 

56.5.4 Owner or User Required Records for Portable Tanks 205 

56.5.4.1 Reporting of Periodic and Intermediate Periodic 
Inspection and Tests of DOT Specification 

Portable Tanks 206 

56.5.4.2 Marking Requirements for Periodic and Intermediate 
Inspection and Test for IM or UN Portable Tanks 206 

56.5.4.3 DOT Marking Requirements for Periodic and 
Intermediate Inspection and Tests of DOT 
Specification 51, 56, 57, or 60 Portable Tanks 206 

56.5.5 Owner or User Required Reports for DOT Specification 106A 

and DOT 110A Ton Tanks 207 

56.5.5.1 Reporting of Inspection and Tests for DOT 
Specification 106Aand DOT 1 10A Ton Tanks 207 

56.5.5.2 DOT Marking Requirements for Test and Inspection 

of DOT Specification 1 06A and 1 1 0A Ton Tanks 207 

56.6 Corrosion and Failure Mechanisms in Transport Tanks 208 

56.6.1 Scope 208 

56.6.2 General 208 

56.6.3 Internal and/or External Corrosion 208 

S6.6.3.1 Types of Corrosion 208 

56.6.4 Failure Mechanisms 210 

56.7 Classification Boundaries 212 

56.8 Pressure, Temperature, and Capacity Requirements for Transport Tanks 212 

56.9 Reference to Other Codes and Standards 212 

56.10 Conclusion 213 

56.1 1 Personnel Safety and Inspection Activities 213 

56.12 Transport Tank Entry Requirements 214 

56.12.1 Pre4nspection Activities 214 

56.12.2 Preparation for Internal Inspection 215 

56.12.3 Post4nspection Activities 216 

56.13 Inspection and Tests of Cargo Tanks 216 

56.13.1 Visual External Inspection 216 

56.13.2 Inspection of Piping, Valves, and Manholes 219 

56.13.3 Inspection of Appurtenances and Structural Attachments 220 

56.13.4 Visual Internal Inspection 221 

56.13.5 Lining Inspections 221 

56.13.6 Pressure Tests 223 

56. 13.6.1 Hydrostatic or Pneumatic Test Method 224 

56.13.6.2 Pressure Testing Insulated Cargo Tanks 225 

56.1 3.6.3 Pressure Testing Cargo Tanks Constructed of 

Quenched and Tempered Steels 225 

56. 13.6.4 Pressure Testing Cargo Tanks Equipped with a 

Heating System 226 

56.13.6.5 Exceptions to Pressure Testing 226 

56.13.6.6 Acceptance Criteria 226 

56.13.6.7 Inspection Report 226 

56.13.7 Additional Requirements for MC 330 and MC 331 Cargo Tanks 227 

56.13.8 Certificates and Reports 228 

56.13.9 Leakage Test 228 



l □ 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CDDE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



56. 13.10 New or Replaced Delivery Hose Assemblies 231 

56.13.10.1 Thickness Testing 231 

56.1 3.1 0.2 Testing Criteria 231 

56.13.10.3 Thickness Requirements 232 

56. 13.11 Cargo Tanks That No Longer Conform to the Minimum Thickness 
Requirements in Tables S6.1 3.1 -a and S6.13.1-b 232 

56.13.1 1 .1 Minimum Thickness for 400 Series Cargo Tanks 233 

56.13.1 1.2 DOT 406 Cargo Tanks 233 

56.13.11.3 DOT 407 Cargo Tanks 234 

S6.13.11.4DOT412 Cargo Tanks 235 

56.14 Inspection and Tests of Portable Tanks 239 

56.14.1 Periodic Inspection and Test 240 

56.14.2 Intermediate Periodic Inspection and Test 240 

56.14.3 Internal and External Inspections 240 

56.14.4 Exceptional Inspection andTest 241 

56.14.5 Internal and External Inspection Procedure 241 

56.14.6 Pressure Tests Procedures for Specification 51, 57, 60, IM or UN 
Portable Tanks 242 

56.14.6.1 Specification 57 PortableTanks 242 

56.14.6.2 Specification 51 or 56 PortableTanks 243 

56.14.6.3 Specification 60 PortableTanks 244 

56.14.6.4 Specification IMor UN PortableTanks 244 

56.14.7 Inspection andTest Markings for IM or UN PortableTanks 245 

56.1 4.8 Inspection and Test Markings for Specification DOT 51 , 56, 

57, or 60 246 

56.14.9 Record Retention 246 

56.1 5 General Requirements for DOT Specification 1 06A and 1 1 0A Tank 

Cars (Ton Tanks) 246 

56.15.1 Special Provisions for Ton Tanks 247 

56.15.2 Visual Inspection ofTonTanks 249 

56.1 5.3 Inspection and Tests of DOT Specification 1 06A and 

DOT Specification 110A Ton Tanks 249 

56.1 5.3.1 Air Tests 250 

56. 15.3.2 Pressure Relief Device Testing 250 

56. 15.3.3 Rupture Discs and Fusible Plugs 250 

56. 15.3.4 Successful Completion of the Periodic Retesting 250 

56. 15.3.5 Exemptions to Periodic Hydrostatic Retesting 251 

56.1 5.3.6 Record of Retest Inspection 251 

56.15.4 Stamping Requirements of DOT 106A and DOT 11 0A Ton Tanks ...251 

56.16 Pressure Relief Devices 252 

S6.16.1 Scope 252 

S6.1 6.2 Safety Considerations 252 

S6.1 6.3 Installation Provisions 252 

S6.1 6.4 Pressure Relief Device Inspection 252.1 

S6.1 6.5 Schedule of Inspections 252.1 

S6.1 6.6 External Visual Inspection of Pressure Relief Devices 252.1 

S6.1 6.7 Pressure Testing of Pressure Relief Valves 252.2 

S6.1 6.8 Correction of Defects 252.2 

S6.1 6.9 Inspection of Rupture Disks and Non-Reclosing Devices 252.3 

56.17 Definitions 252.3 



l l 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Supp.7 Inspection of Pressure Vessels in Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Service 259 

57.1 Scope 259 

57.2 Pre-lnspection Activities 259 

57.3 Inservice Inspection for Vessels in LP Gas Service 259 

S7.3.1 Nondestructive Examination (NDE) 259 

57.4 External Inspection 260 

57.5 Internal Inspection 260 

57.6 Leaks 260 

57.7 Fire Damage 260 

57.8 Acceptance Criteria 261 

57.8.1 Cracks 261 

57.8.2 Dents 261 

57.8.3 Bulges 262 

57.8.4 Cuts or Gouges 262 

57.8.5 Corrosion 262 

Supp. 8 Pressure Differential Between Safety or Safety Relief Valve Setting and Boiler 

or Pressure Vessel Operating Pressure 262.1 

58.1 Scope 262.1 

58.2 Hot-Water Heating Boilers 262.1 

58.3 Steam Heating Boilers 262.1 

58.4 Power Boilers 262.1 

58.5 Pressure Vessels 262.2 

Section 7 NBIC Policy for Metrication 263 

7.1 General 264 

7.2 Equivalent Rationale 264 

7.3 Procedure for Conversion 264 

7.4 Referencing Tables 265 

Section 8 Preparation of Technical Inquiries to the National Board Inspection Code 

Committee 269 

8.1 Introduction 270 

8.2 Inquiry Format 270 

8.3 Code Revisions or Additions 271 

8.4 Code Interpretations 271 

8.5 Submittals 271 

Section 9 Glossary of Terms 273 

9.1 Definitions 274 

Section 10 NBIC Approved Interpretations 277 

10.1 Scope 278 

10.2 Index of Interpretations 278 

10.3 Subject Index of Interpretations 282 

Section 1 1 Index 285 



1 2 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 b) Firing equipment controls; 

c) Adequacy of structure, boiler supports, and 
any associated support steel; 

d) Boiler casing should be free from cracks, 
combustion gas, or fluid leaks, excessive 
corrosion or other degradation that could 
interfere with proper operation; 

e) Soot blowers, valves, and actuating mecha- 
nisms; 

f) Gaskets on observation doors, access doors, 
drums, handhole and manhole covers and 
caps; 

g) Valves and actuators, either chains, motors, 
and/or handwheels; and 

h) Leakage of fluids or combustion gases. 



2.2.6 



INTERNAL INSPECTION 



a) When a boiler is to be prepared for internal 
inspection, the water shall not be with- 
drawn until the setting has been sufficiently 
cooled at a rate to avoid damage to the 
boiler as well as additional preparations 
identified in 1.4.1 and 1.5.3. 

b) The owner or user shall prepare a boiler for 
internal inspection in the following man- 
ner: 

1) Before opening the manhole(s) and 
entering any part of the boiler that is 
connected to a common header with 
other boilers, the required steam or 
water system stop valves (including 
bypass) must be closed, locked out, 
and/or tagged in accordance with the 
owner-user's procedures, and drain 
valves or cocks between the two closed 
stop valves be opened. After draining 
the boiler, the blowoff valves shall be 
closed, locked out, and/or tagged out 
in accordance with the owner-user's 



procedures. Alternatively, lines may be 
blanked or sections of pipe removed. 
Blowoff lines, where practicable, shall 
be disconnected between pressure 
parts and valves. All drains and vent 
lines shall be open. 

2) The Inspector shall review all personnel 
safety requirements as outlined in 1.4 
prior to entry. 

Note: If a boiler has not been properly 
prepared for an internal inspection, 
the inspector shall decline to make the 
inspection. 



2.2.7 



EVIDENCE OF LEAKAGE 



a) It is not normally necessary to remove in- 
sulating material, masonry, or fixed parts 
of a boiler for inspection, unless defects 
or deterioration are suspected or are com- 
monly found in the particular type of boiler 
being inspected. Where there is evidence 
of leakage showing on the covering, the In- 
spector shall have the covering removed in 
order that a thorough inspection of the area 
may be made. Such inspection may require 
removal of insulating material, masonry, or 
fixed parts of the boiler. 

b) For additional information regarding a leak 
in a boiler or determining the extent of a 
possible defect, a leak test may be per- A07 
formed per 4.3.3. 



2.2.8 BOILER CORROSION 

CONSIDERATIONS 

a) Corrosion causes deterioration of the metal 
surfaces. It can affect large areas, or it can 
be localized in the form of pitting. Isolated, 
shallow pitting is not considered serious if 
not active. 



z i 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



b) The most common causes of corrosion in 
boilers are the presence of free oxygen and 
dissolved salts in the feedwater. Where 
active corrosion is found, the Inspector 
should advise the owner or user to obtain 
competent advice regarding proper feed- 
water treatment. 

c) For the purpose of estimating the effect of 
severe corrosion over large areas on the safe 
working pressure, the thickness of the re- 
maining sound metal should be determined 
by ultrasonic examination or by drilling. 

d) Grooving is a form of metal deterioration 
caused by localized corrosion and may be 
accelerated by stress concentration. This is 
especially significant adjacent to riveted 
joints. 

e) All flanged surfaces should be inspected, 
particularly the flanges of unstayed heads. 
Grooving in the knuckles of such heads is 
common since there is slight movement in 
heads of this design which causes a stress 
concentration. 

f) Some types of boilers have ogee or re- 
versed-flanged construction which is prone 
to grooving and may not be readily acces- 
sible for examination. The Inspector should 
insert a mirror through an inspection open- 
ing to examine as much area as possible. 
Other means of examination such as the 
ultrasonic method may be employed. 

g) Grooving is usually progressive and when 
it is detected, its effect should be carefully 
evaluated and corrective action taken. 



inspected for deposits caused by water 
treatment, scale, oil, or other substances. 
Oil or scale in the tubes of watertube boil- 
ers is particularly detrimental since this 
can cause an insulating effect resulting in 
overheating, weakening, possible metal 
fatigue, bulging, or rupture. 

b) Excessive scale or other deposits should 
be removed by chemical or mechanical 
means. 



A09 h) Pitting and corrosion on the waterside sur- 
faces of the tubes should be examined. In 
vertical firetube boilers, excessive corrosion 
and pitting is often noted at and above the 
water level. 

A09 



2.2.9 



WATERSIDE DEPOSITS 



All accessible surfaces of the exposed metal 
on the waterside of the boiler should be 



22 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



2.2.10 INSPECTION OF BOILER 
PIPING, PARTS, AND 

APPURTENANCES 



2.2.10.1 BOILER PIPING 

Piping should be inspected in accordance 
with 2.4. 

A09 

A09 2.2.1 0.2 FLANGED OR OTHER 
CONNECTIONS 

a) The manhole and reinforcing plates, as well 
as nozzles or other connections flanged or 
bolted to the boiler, should be examined 
for evidence of defects both internally and 
externally. Whenever possible, observation 
should be made from both sides, internally 
and externally, to determine whether con- 
nections are properly made to the boiler. 

b) All openings leading to external attach- 
ments, such as water column connections, 
low-water fuel cut-off devices, openings in 
dry pipes, and openings to safety valves, 
should be examined to ensure they are free 
from obstruction. 



c) Any localization of heat caused by improper 
or defective installation or improper opera- 
tion of firing equipment shall be corrected 
before the boiler is returned to service. 

d) The refractory supports and settings should 
be carefully examined, especially at points 
where the boiler structure comes near the 
setting wal Is or floor, to ensure that deposits 
of ash or soot will not bind the boiler and 
produce excessive strains on the structure 
due to the restriction of movement of the 
parts under operating conditions. 

e) When tubes have been re-rolled or re- 
placed, they should be inspected for proper 
workmanship. Where tubes are readily ac- 
cessible, they may have been over rolled. 
Conversely, when it is difficult to reach 
the tube ends, they may have been under 
rolled. 

f) Valves should be inspected on boiler feed- A09 
water, blowdown, drain, and steam systems 

for gland leakage, operability, tightness, 
handle or stem damage, body defects, and 
general corrosion. 



A09 2.2.10.3 MISCELLANEOUS 

a) The piping to the water column should be 
carefully inspected to ensure that water 
cannot accumulate in the steam connec- 
tion. The position of the water column 
should be checked to determine that the 
column is placed in accordance with the 
original code of construction or jurisdic- 
tional requirements. 

b) The gas side baffling should be inspected. 
Absence of proper baffling or defective 
baffling can cause high temperatures and 
overheat portions of the boiler. The location 
and condition of combustion arches should 
be checked for evidence of flame impinge- 
ment, which could result in overheating. 



2.2.10.4 GAGES A09 

a) Ensure that the water level indicated is cor- 
rect by having the gage tested as follows: 

1 ) Close the lower gage glass valve, then 
open the drain cock and blow the glass 
clear. 

2) Close the drain cock and open the 
lower gage glass valve. Water should 
return to the gage glass immediately. 

3) Close the upper gage glass valve, then 
open the drain cock and allow the wa- 
ter to flow until it runs clean. 

4) Close the drain cock and open the 
upper gage glass valve. Water should 
return to the gage glass immediately. 



23 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 



5) If the water return is sluggish, the test 
should be discontinued. A sluggish 
response could indicate an obstruction 
in the pipe connections to the boiler. 
Any leakage at these fittings should be 
promptly corrected to avoid damage to 
the fittings or a false waterline indica- 
tion. 

b) Unless there is other information to assess 
its accuracy or reliability, all the pressure 
gages shall be removed, tested, and their 
readings compared to the readings of a cali- 
brated standard test gage or a dead weight 
tester. 

c) The location of a steam pressure gage 
should be noted to determine whether it is 
exposed to high temperature from an exter- 
nal source or to internal heat due to lack of 
protection by a proper siphon or trap. The 
Inspector should check that provisions are 
made for blowing out the pipe leading to 
the steam gage. 

d) The Inspector should observe the pressure 
gage reading during tests, for example, the 
reduction in pressure when testing the low 
water fuel cutoff control or safety valve 
on steam boilers. Defective gages shall be 
replaced. 



A09 2.2.10.5 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 

See 2.5 for the inspection of safety devices 
(pressure relief valves) used to prevent overpres- 
sure of boilers. 



A09 2.2.10.6 CONTROLS 

a) Verify operation of low water protection de- 
vices by observing the blowdown of these 
controls or the actual lowering of boiler 
water level under carefully controlled con- 
ditions with the burner operating. This test 
should shut off the heat source to the boiler. 
The return to normal condition such as the 



restart of the burner, the silencing of an 
alarm, or stopping of a feed pump should 
be noted. A sluggish response could indi- 
cate an obstruction in the connections to 
the boiler. 

b) The operation of a submerged low water 
fuel cutoff mounted directly in a steam 
boiler shell should be tested by lowering the 
boiler water level carefully. This should be 
done only after being assured that the water 
level gage glass is indicating correctly. 

c) On a high-temperature water boiler, it is 
often not possible to test the control by 
cutoff indication, but where the control is 
of the float type, externally mounted, the 
float chamber should be drained to check 
for the accumulation of sediment. 

d) In the event controls are inoperative or the 
correct water level is not indicated, the 
boiler shall be taken out of service until the 
unsafe condition has been corrected. 

e) Al I automatic low water fuel cutoff and wa- 
ter feeding devices should be examined by 
the Inspector to ensure that they are prop- 
erly installed. The Inspector should have 
the float chamber types of control devices 
disassembled and the float linkage and 
connections examined for wear. The float 
chamber should be examined to ensure that 
it is free of sludge or other accumulation. 
Any necessary corrective action shall be 
taken before the device is placed back into 
service. The Inspector should check that the 
operating instructions for the devices are 
readily available. 

f) Check that the following controls/devices 
are provided: 

1 ) Each automatically fired steam boiler is 
protected from overpressure by not less 
than two pressure operated controls, 
one of which may be an operating 
control. 



24 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



2.2.11 



Each automatically fired hot-water boil- 
er is protected from over-temperature 
by not less than two temperature oper- 
ated controls, one of which may be an 
operating control. 

Each hot-water boiler is fitted with a 
thermometer that will, at all times, in- 
dicate the water temperature at or near 
the boiler outlet. 



RECORDS REVIEW 



a) A review of the boiler log, records of main- 
tenance, and feedwater treatment should be 
made by the Inspector to ensure that regular 
and adequate tests have been made on the 
boiler and controls. 

b) The owner or user should be consulted re- 
garding repairs or alterations, if any, which 
have been made since the last inspection. 
Such repairs or alterations should be re- 
viewed for compliance with the jurisdic- 
tional requirements, if applicable. 



A07 2.2.1 2 DESCRIPTION AND CONCERNS 
OF SPECIFIC TYPES OF BOILERS 

The following details are unique to specific 
type boilers and should be considered when 
performing inspections along with the general 
requirements as previously outlined. 



A09 2.2.12.1 CAST-SRON BOILERS 

a) Cast-iron boilers are used in a variety of 
applications to produce low or high pres- 
A07 sure steam and hot water heat. Cast-iron 
boilers should only be used in applica- 
tions that allow for nearly 100% return of 
condensate or water and are not typically 
used in process-type service. These boilers 
are designed to operate with minimum 
scale, mud, or sludge, which could occur 
if makeup water is added to this system. 



b) Due to the unique design and material 
considerations of cast-iron boilers, the fol- 
lowing are common areas of inspection: 

1) Scale and Sludge — since combustion 
occurs at or near the bottom, accumu- 
lation of scale or sludge close to the 
intense heat can cause overheating and 
lead to cracking. 

2) Feedwater — makeup feedwater should 
not come in contact with hot surfaces. 
Supply should be connected to a return 
pipe for tempering. 

3) Section Alignment — misalignment of 
sections can cause leakage. Leakage or 
corrosion between sections will not al- 
low normal expansion and contraction 
that may cause cracking. 

4) Tie Rods or Draw Rods — used to as- 
semble the boiler and pull the sections 
together. These rods must not carry any 
stress and need to be loose, allowing 
for section growth during heat up. 
Expansion washers may be used and 
nuts should be just snugged allowing 
for expansion. 

5) Push Nipple or Seal Area — corrosion 
or leakage is likely at the push nipple 
opening, usually caused by the push 
nipple being pushed into the seat 
crooked, warping due to overheating, 
tie rods too tight, and push nipple cor- 
rosion/erosion. 

6) Corrosion — firesides of sections 
can corrode due to ambient moisture 
coupled with acidic flue gas deposits. 

7) Soot — inadequate oxygen supply or 
improperly adjusted burner can allow 
for soot buildup in fireside passages. A 
reduction in efficiency and hot spots 
may occur. Soot, when mixed with wa- 
ter, can form acidic solutions harmful 
to the metal. 



25 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



A09 2.2.12.2 FIRETUBE BOILERS 

a) The distinguishing characteristic of a fire- 
tube boiler is that the products of combus- 
tion pass within tubes that are surrounded 
by the water that is being heated. Combus- 
tion of fuel takes place within the furnace 
area with the resultant products of combus- 
tion traveling through one or more groups 
of tubes before exiting the boiler. Firetube 
boilers are classified by the arrangement of 
the furnace and tubes such as Horizontal 
Return Tubular (HRT) boiler, Firetube Fire 
Box (FTFFJ) boiler, or Vertical Tubular (VT) 
boiler. The number of passes that the prod- 
ucts of combustion make through the tubes 
is also used in classifying the type of boiler, 
such as a two-pass or three-pass boiler. 

b) Firetube boilers may be used in hot water 
or steam applications. They may be either 
low pressure or high pressure construction, 
but typically are not designed for pressures 
greater than 250 psig. Steam capacities are 
generally less than 30,000 Ib/hr. Firetube 
boilers are found in a wide variety of ap- 
plications ranging from heating to process 
steam to small power generation. 

c) Firetube boilers are subject to thermal 
stresses due to cycling, which may cause 
tube leakage and corrosion of joints. The 
following items are common areas of in- 
spection: 

1) Waterside — scale buildup on and 
around the furnace tube. Scale on or 
around the firetubes in the first pass 
after the furnace (gas temperatures 
>1 800°F [980°C]). Scale and corrosion 
buildup on stay rods hiding the actual 
diameter. Corrosion pitting on all pres- 
sure boundaries. 

2) Fireside — Tube to tube sheet joint leak- 
age. Look for rust trails left by weeping 
joints. When in doubt where the leak- 
age is coming from, perform a liquid 
penetrant exam. Take note of refractory 
locations protecting steel that is not 



water cooled. Partial or complete re- 
moval of the refractory may be required 
for inspection purposes. Condensation 
of combustion gas dripping out of the 
fireside gaskets during a cold boiler start 
up is expected. However, if it continues 
after the water temperature in the boiler 
is at least 150°F (65°C), then further 
investigation to determine the source 
of water shall be conducted. 

3) The fireside surfaces of tubes in hori- 
zontal firetube boilers usually deterio- 
rate more rapidly at the ends nearest 
the fire. The Inspector should examine 
the tube ends to determine if there has 
been serious reduction in thickness. 
The tube surfaces in some vertical tube 
boilers are more susceptible to deterio- 
ration at the upper ends when exposed 
to the heat of combustion. These tube 
ends should be closely examined to 
determine if there has been a serious 
reduction in thickness. The upper tube 
sheet in a vertical "dry top" boiler 
should be inspected for evidence of 
overheating. 

4) All stays, whether diagonal or through, 
should be inspected to determine 
whether or not they are in even ten- 
sion. Staybolt ends and the stayed plates 
should be examined to determine 
whether cracks exist. In addition, stayed 
plates should be inspected for bulging 
in the general area of the stay. Each 
staybolt end should be checked for 
excessive cold working (heading) and 
seal welds as evidence of a possible 
leakage problem. Stays or staybolts that 
are not in tension or adjustment should 
be repaired. Broken stays or staybolts 
shall be replaced. 

5) The Inspector should test firebox stay- 
bolts by tapping one end of each bolt 
with a hammer and, where practicable, 
a hammer or other heavy tool should 
be held on the opposite end to make 
the test more effective. An unbroken 
bolt should give a ringing sound while 



26 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



a broken bolt will give a hollow or non- 
responsive sound. Staybolts with telltale 
holes should be examined for evidence 
of leakage, which will indicate a broken 
or cracked bolt. Broken staybolts shall 
be replaced. 

d) Practical considerations lead to the use 
of basically cylindrical shells. Flat-end 
tubesheet surfaces are supported by various 
methods: diagonal stays, through-bolts, or 
the tubes themselves. Tubes may be rolled, 
welded, or rolled and seal-welded into the 
tubesheets. For steam applications, the wa- 
ter level is maintained several inches above 
the uppermost row of tubes, which allows 
for a steam space in the upper portion of 
the boiler shell. There are several different 
types of firetube boilers: 

1 ) Firetube Scotch Marine (FTSM) 

a. A Firetube Scotch Marine boiler 
consists of a horizontal cylindrical 
shell with an internal furnace. Fuel 
is burned in the furnace with the 
products of combustion making 
two, three, or four passes through 
the boiler tubes. The rear door may 
be either a dry refractory lined de- 
sign (dry back) or a water-cooled 
(wet back) design. Two designs of 
the furnace are commonly used: 
one, the corrugated type, is known 
as a Morrison furnace; the other is 
the plain furnace. 

b. The FTSM boiler design is one of 
the oldest firetube boiler designs 
with internal furnaces. Extensive 
use in early marine service added 
"marine" to the name of this type of 
boiler. Currently both the wet back 
design and the dry back design can 
be found in stationary applications. 
Firetube Scotch marine boilers are 
used for both high pressure and low 
pressure steam applications and are 
also used for hot water service. 



2) Horizontal Return Tubular (HRT) 

a. Horizontal Return Tubular boilers A08 
consists of a cylindrical shell with 
flat tube sheets on the ends. The 
tubes occupy the lower two thirds 
of the shell with a steam space 
above the tubes. The lower portion 
of the shell is enclosed by refractory 
brick work forming the furnace of 
the boiler, which is normally quite 
large to accommodate sold fuel 
firing. The shell is supported by the 
brick work or by support beams 
that are connected by buckstays to 
suspension lugs mounted on the 
shell. This type of boiler is highly 
susceptible to overheating of the 
lower portion of the shell due to 
scale accumulation that prevents 
heat transfer from the shell to the 
water. Another area of concern is 
the bottom blowdown line which 
passes through the rear of the fur- 
nace. It must be protected with a 
refractory baffle to prevent direct 
contact with the products of com- 
bustion. Another potential prob- 
lem is deterioration of the furnace 
brickwork, allowing the products 
of combustion to escape and thus 
reducing efficiency. 

b. HRT boilers were originally used for 
both high pressure and low pres- 
sure steam applications. HRT boil- A08 
ers were quite common in the early 
to mid 1900s. These boilers are 
frequently of riveted construction. 
The design is quite inefficient due 
to the one pass design and the large 
amount brickwork that is heated by 
the products of combustion. Units 
that are still in service are typically 
found in old industrial facilities and 
are generally only used for steam 
heating applications. 



27 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



A07 



A07 



3) Firetube Fire Box (FTFB) 

a. Firetube Fire Box boilers were 
popular in the mid 1 900s, although 
many can still be found in service. 
An FTFB boiler consists of an ex- 
ternal furnace that is enclosed by 
water legs on three or four sides. 
The water legs extend upward to 
the crownsheet to form the lower 
part of the boiler shell while the 
upper part of the shell is formed by 
the extension of the water leg outer 
shell. Flat heads are used on both 
ends of the boiler shell. The boilers 
may be two-, three-, or four-pass 
designs. 

b. Since the water legs of FTFB boilers 
are the lowest point of the water 
side, loose scale and sludge tends 
to accumulate. Besides interfering 
with water flow, the accumulated 
sediment may accelerate corrosion 
of water leg stay bolts or the water 
legs themselves. The hand holes in 
the water legs should be open dur- 
ing an internal inspection. 

4) Locomotive 

Locomotive boilers are similar in design 
to the boilers on old steam locomotives. 
This design saw limited stationary ap- 
plications and few remain in service 
today. Most are of riveted construction. 
See Supplement 1 for detailed draw- 
ings. 

5) Vertical Firetube 

As the name implies, vertical firetube 
boilers are arranged with the shell and 
tubes in the vertical orientation. These 
boilers are generally small (<1 0,000 lb/ 
hr [< 4, 535.92 kg/hr] capacity) and are 
used where the rapid development of 
steam is necessary for operation. Verti- 
cal firetube boilers are found in many 
high- and low-pressure applications. 
The burner may be located on top or 
bottom of the boiler. Due to their small 
size and frequent application where 



considerable makeup water is used, 
scale development is an important 
concern. 



2.2.12.3 WATERTUBE BOILERS 



A09 



a) Typically constructed of drums, headers, 
and tubes, watertube boilers are used to 
produce steam or hot water commonly 
in large quantities. They range in size 
and pressure from small package units to 
extremely large field erected boilers with 
pressures in excess of 3000 psig (21 MPa). 
These boilers may be fired by many types 
of fuels such as wood, coal, gas, oil, trash, 
and black liquor. Their size and type of 
construction poses mechanical and thermal 
cyclic stresses. 

b) There are many locations both internal and 
external where moisture and oxygen com- 
bine causing primary concern for corrosion. 
The fuels burned in watertube boilers may 
contain ash, which can form an abrasive 
grit in the flue gas stream. The abrasive ac- 
tion of the ash in high velocity flue gas can 
quickly erode boiler tubes. 

c) Unique parts associated with this type of 
construction such as casing, expansion 
supports, superheater, economizer, soot 
blowers, drums, headers, and tubes should 
be inspected carefully and thoroughly in 
accordance with 2.2. 

d) The surfaces of tubes should be carefully A09 
examined to detect corrosion, erosion, 
bulges, cracks, or evidence of defective 
welds. Tubes may become thinned by 
high velocity impingement of fuel and ash 
particles or by the improper installation 

or use of soot blowers. A leak from a tube 
frequently causes serious corrosion or ero- 
sion on adjacent tubes. 

e) In restricted fireside spaces, such as where A09 
short tubes or nipples are used to join 
drums or headers, there is a tendency for 
fuel and ash to lodge at junction points. 
Such deposits are likely to cause corrosion 



2S 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



if moisture is present, and the area should 
be thoroughly cleaned and examined. 

A09 f) Drums and headers should be inspected 
internally and externally for signs of leak- 
age, corrosion, overheating, and erosion. 
Inspect blowdown piping and connections 
for expansion and flexibility. Check header 
seals for gasket leakage. 

A09 g) Soot blower mechanical gears, chains, pul- 
leys, etc., should be checked for broken 
or worn parts. Inspect supply piping to the 
soot blowers for faulty supports, leakage, 
and expansion and contraction provisions. 
Check design for proper installation to al- 
low for complete drainage of condensate, 
which may cause erosion. 

A09 2.2.12.4 ELECTRIC BOILERS 

a) Electric boilers are heated by an electrical 
energy source, either by use of electric re- 
sistant coils or induction coils. These boilers 
may be used in either high-or-low pressure 
steam or hot water applications. 

b) Due to the unique design and material con- 
siderations of electric boilers, the following 
are common areas of inspection: 

1 ) Weight Stress of the Elements — some 
electrodes and elements can be quite 
heavy, especially if covered with scale 
deposits. These elements will scale 
sooner and at a faster rate than internal 
surfaces. Excessive weight puts severe 
stress on the attachment fittings and 
welds at support points. 

2 ) Thermal Shock — heaters are constantly 
cycling on and off creating temperature 

A07 gradients, but are less susceptible to 

thermal shock than a fired boiler. 

3) Leakage — any leakage noted at the 
opening where electrodes or elements 
are inserted is extremely dangerous due 
to the possible exposure of electrical 
wires, contacts, and breakers. 



2.2.12.5 FIRED COIL WATER HEATERS A09 

a) Fired coil water heaters are used for rapid 
heating of potable water or hot water ser- 
vice. This design utilizes a coil through 
which the water being heated is passed. 
This type of heater has very little volume 
and may be used in conjunction with a 
hot-water storage vessel. 

b) Due to the unique design and material 
considerations of fired coil water heaters, 
the following are common areas of inspec- 
tion: 

1) Erosion — size and velocity of water 
flow through the coil combines to 
create wear and thinning of the coils. 
If a temperature differential is created 
within the coil, bubbles or steam may 
cause grooving or cavitation. 

2) Corrosion — this type of system uses 
100% makeup water that contains 
free oxygen creating opportunities for 
extensive corrosion. 

3) Vibration — operation of the burner 
creates a certain amount of vibration. 
Creation of steam, hot spots, or lack of 
flow may create a water hammer caus- 
ing extensive vibration and mechanical 
stresses. 

4) Scale — due to the large volume of 
makeup, significant amounts of scale 
forming particles will adhere to the hot 
surfaces. 



2.2.12.6 FIRED STORAGE WATER 
HEATERS 



A09 



Fired storage water heaters are vertical 
pressure vessels containing water to which 
heat is applied. Typically gas burners are 
located directly beneath the storage vessel. 
These heaters should be insulated and fitted 
with an outer jacket and may be lined with 
porcelain, glass, galvanized metal, cement, 
or epoxy. 



29 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



b) Due to the unique design and material 
considerations of fired storage water heat- 
ers, the following are common areas of 
inspection: 

1 ) Corrosion — moisture may be trapped 
between the insulation and outer 
jacket, which may cause corrosion of 
the pressure boundary. 

2) Mud and Sludge — there is 100% 
makeup of water allowing for accumu- 
lation of mud and sludge in the bottom 
portions of the vessel. Any buildup can 
cause overheating and failure of the 
metal in this area. 

3) Scale — loose scale may accumulate in 
areas adjacent to the burner and lower 
portions of the vessel, interfering with 
heat transfer process and causing local- 
ized overheating. Scale and sludge can 
also shield temperature control probes 
giving false readings and allowing the 
water to overheat. 

4) Thermal Cycling — heated water is con- 
tinually replaced with cold water caus- 
ing thermal stress within the vessel. 

5) Lining — loss of lining or coating will 
allow for rapid deterioration of the pres- 
sure boundary. 

6) Pressure — if water supply pressure 
exceeds 75% of set pressure of safety 
relief valve, a pressure reducing valve 
may be required. 

7) Expansion — if the water heater can 
be isolated by devices such as a check 
valve, it is recommended that an expan- 
sion tank be provided. 

2.2.12.7 THERMAL FLUID HEATERS 

a) Design and Operating Features 

1 ) Many thermal fluid heaters are pressure 
vessels in which a synthetic or organic 
fluid is heated or vaporized. Some 



thermal fluid heaters operate at atmo- A09 
spheric pressure. The fluids are typically 
flammable, are heated above the liquid 
flash point, and may be heated above 
the liquid boiling point. The heaters are 
commonly direct-fired by combustion 
of a fuel or by electric resistance ele- 
ments. Heater design may be similar to 
an electric resistance heated boiler, to 
a firetube boiler or, more commonly, 
to a watertube boiler. Depending on 
process heating requirements, the 
fluid may be vaporized with a natural 
circulation, but more often, the fluid 
is heated and circulated by pumping 
the liquid. Use of thermal fluid heating 
permits heating at a high temperature 
with a low system pressure (600°F to 
700°F [316°C to 371 °C] at pressures 
just above atmospheric). To heat water 
to those temperatures, would require 
pressures of at least 1530 psig (10.55 
MPa). 

2) Nearly all thermal heating fluids are 
flammable. Leaks within a fired heater 
can result in destruction of the heater. 
Leaks in external piping can result in 
fire and may result in an explosion. 
Water accumulation in a thermal 
heating system may cause upsets and 
possible fluid release from the system 
if the water contacts heated fluid 
(remember, flashing water expands 
approximately 1 600 times). It is essen- 
tial for safe system operation to have 
installed and to maintain appropri- 
ate fluid level, temperature and flow 
controls for liquid systems, and level, A07 
temperature and pressure controls for 
vapor systems. Expansion tanks used 
in thermal heater systems, including 
vented systems, should be designed 
and constructed to a recognized stan- 
dard such as ASME Section VIII, Div. 
1, to withstand pressure surges that 
may occur during process upsets. This 
is due to the rapid expansion of water 
exceeding the venting capability. 



3D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE ' PART 2 



INSPECTION 



3) Because heat transfer fluids contract 
and become more viscous when 
cooled, proper controls and expansion 
tank venting are required to prevent 
low fluid level and collapse of the 
tank. Some commonly used fluids will 
solidify as high as 54°F (12°C). Others 
do not become solid until -40°F (-40°C) 
or even lower. The fluids that become 
viscous will also become difficult to 
pump when cooled. Increased viscos- 
ity could cause low flow rates through 
the heater. The heater manufacturer 
recommendations and the fluid manu- 
facturer's Material Safety Data Sheets 
(MSDS) should be reviewed for heat 
tracing requirements. 

A07 b) Industrial Applications 

Thermal fluid heaters, often called boilers, 
are used in a variety of industrial applica- 
tions such as solid wood products manufac- 
turing resins, turpentines, and various types 
of chemicals, drugs, plastics, corrugating 
plants, and wherever high temperatures are 
required. They are also frequently found 
in asphalt plants for heating of oils, tars, 
asphalt pitches, and other viscous materi- 
als. Many chemical plants use this type of 
heater in jacketed reactors or other types 
of heat exchangers. 

c) Inspection 

1) Inspection of thermal fluid heaters 
typically is done in either the operating 
mode or the shutdown mode. Internal 
inspections, however, are rarely pos- 
sible due to the characteristics of the 
fluids and the need to drain and store 
the fluid. Reliable and safe operation 
of a heater requires frequent analysis of 
the fluid to determine that its condition 
is satisfactory for continued operation. 
If the fluid begins to breakdown, carbon 
will form and collect on heat transfer 
A07 surfaces within the heater. Overheat- 

ing and pressure boundary failure may 
result. Review of fluid test results and 
control and safety device maintenance 



records are essential in determining 
satisfactory conditions for continued 
safe heater operation. 

2) Due to the unique design and material 
considerations of thermal fluid heat- 
ers and vaporizers, common areas of 
inspection are: 

a. Design — specific requirements 
outlined in construction codes must 
be met. Some Jurisdictions may re- 
quire ASME Section I or Section VIII 
construction. Code requirements 
for the particular Jurisdiction should 
be reviewed for specific design 
criteria. 

b. Materials — for some thermal flu- 
ids, the use of aluminum or zinc 
anywhere in the system is not advis- 
able. Aluminum acts as a catalyst 
that will hasten decomposition of 
the fluid. In addition, some fluids 
when hot will cause aluminum 
to corrode rapidly or will dissolve 
zinc. The zinc will then form a 
precipitate that can cause localized 
corrosion or plug instrumentation, 
valves, or even piping in extreme 
cases. These fluids should not be 
used in systems containing alumi- 
num or galvanized pipe. The fluid 
specifications will list such restric- 
tions. 

Note: Some manufacturers of these 
fluids recommend not using alumi- 
num paint on valves or fittings in 
the heat transfer system. 

c. Corrosion — when used in ap- 
plications and installations recom- 
mended by fluid manufacturer, 
heat transfer fluids are typically 
noncorrosive. However, some flu- 
ids, if used at temperatures above 
1 50°F (65°C) in systems containing 
aluminum or zinc can cause rapid 
corrosion. 



3 1 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



d. Leakage — any sign of leakage 
could signify problems since the 
fluid or its vapors can be hazard- 
ous as well as flammable. Areas 

A07 for potential leaks include cracks 

at weld attachment points and tube 
thinning in areas where tubes are 
near soot blowers. The thermal fluid 
manufacturer specifications will list 
the potential hazards. 

e. Solidification of the Fluid — deter- 
mine that no conditions exist that- 
would allow solidification of the 
thermal fluid. When heat tracing or 
insulation on piping is recommend- 
ed by the heater manufacturer, the 
heat tracing and insulation should 
be checked for proper operation 
and installation. 

A08 f. Pressure Relief Devices — Pressure 

relief valves shall be a closed bon- 
net design with no manual lift lever. 
The pressure relief discharge should 
be connected to a closed, vented 
storage tank or blowdown tank with 

A09 solid piping (no drip pan elbow, or 

other air gap). When outdoor dis- 
charge is used, the following should 
be considered for discharge piping 
at the point of discharge: 

1 . Both thermal and chemical 
reactions (personnel hazard) 

2. Combustible materials (fire 
hazard) 

3. Surface drains (pollution and 
fire hazard) 

4. Loop seal or rain cap on the 
discharge (keep both air and 
water out of the system) 

5. Drip leg near device (prevent 
liquid collection) 

6. Heat tracing for systems using 
high freeze point fluids (pre- 
vent blockage) 



2.2.12.8 WASTE HEAT BOILERS A09 

a) Waste heat boilers are usually of firetube or 
watertube type and obtain their heat from 
an external source or process in which a 
portion of the BTUs have been utilized. 
Generation of electrical energy is usually 
the primary application of waste heat boil- 
ers. The biggest disadvantage of this type 
of boiler is that it is not fired on the basis 
of load demand. Since the boiler does not 
have effective control over the amount of 
heat entering the boiler, there may be wide 
variations or fluctuations of metal tempera- 
tures. Waste process gasses are usually in 
a temperature range of 400° F (205°C) to 
800°F (427°C), where combustion gasses 
of conventional-fired boilers are at about 
2000°F (1 093°C). Special design consider- 
ations are made to compensate for lower 
combustion gas temperatures such as the 
use of finned high-efficiency heat absorbing 
tubes, and by slowing the velocity of gasses 
through the boiler. 

b) Due to the unique design and material 
considerations of waste heat boilers, the fol- 
lowing are common areas of inspection: 

1) Corrosion — chemicals in waste heat 
gasses may create corrosive conditions 
and react adversely when combined 
with normal gasses of combustion. 
Water or steam leakage can create 
localized corrosion. Extreme thermal 
cycling can cause cracks and leakage 
at joints. 

2) Erosion — typically waste heat flow is 
very low and erosion is not a problem. 
However, when waste heat is supplied 
from an internal combustion engine, 
exhaust gasses can be high enough to 
cause erosion. 

3) Vibration — in some process applica- 
tions and all engine waste heat appli- 
cations, the boiler may be subjected to 
high vibration stresses. 



32 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



4) Acid Attack — in sulfuric acid processes 
refractory supports and steel casings are 
subject to acid attack. Piping, filters, heat 
exchangers, valves, fittings, and appur- 
tenances are subject to corrosive attacks 
because these parts are not normally 
made of corrosion resistant materials. 

5) Dry Operation — in certain applica- 
tions waste heat boilers are operated 
without water. Care must be taken not 
to expose carbon steel material to tem- 
peratures in excess of 800°F (427°C) for 
prolonged periods. Carbides in the steel 
may precipitate to graphite at elevated 
temperatures. 



A09 2.2.12.9 KRAFT OR SULFATE BLACK 

LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS 

a) Kraft or Sulfate Black Liquor Recovery 
boilers are used in the pulp and paper 
industry. Black liquor is a by-product of 
pulp processing. It contains organic and 
inorganic constituents concentrated to at 
least 58% solids for firing in the recovery 
boilers. The organic material that is dis- 
solved in the pulping process combusts, 
and the spent pulping chemicals form a 
molten pool in the furnace. The molten 
material, or "smelt," drains from the furnace 
wall through smelt spouts into a smelt dis- 
solving tank for recovery of the chemicals. 
Ultimately, the by-product of the recovery 
process is steam used for processing and 
power. Gas or oil auxilliary burners are 
used to start the self-sustaining black liquor 
combustion process and may be used to 
produce supplemental steam if sufficient 
liquor is not available. 

b) The recovery combustion process requires a 
reducing atmosphere near the furnace floor 
and an oxidizing atmosphere in the upper 
furnace for completion of combustion. 
Pressure parts within the furnace require 
protection from the reducing atmosphere 
and from sulfidation. The rate of corrosion 
within the furnace is temperature depen- 
dent. Boilers operating up to 900 psi (6.21 
MPa) typically have plain carbon steel 



steam generating tubes with pin studs ap- 
plied to the lower furnace to retain a pro- 
tective layer of refractory or "frozen" smelt. 
Above 900 psi (6.21 MPa) the lower furnace 
tubes will typically have a special corrosion 
protection outer layer. The most common 
is a stainless steel clad "composite tube." A09 
Other protection methods are corrosion re- 
sistant overlay welding, thermal or plasma 
spray coating, and diffusion coating. 

c) The unique hazard of these boilers is the A09 
potential for an explosion if water should 

be combined with the molten smelt. The 
primary source of water is from pressure 
part failure, permitting water to enter the 
furnace. The owner's inspection program is 
carefully developed and executed at appro- 
priate intervals to avoid pressure part failure 
that could admit water to the furnace. A 
second source of water is the liquor fuel. 

d) Permitting black liquor of 58% or lower 
solids content to enter the furnace can also 
result in an explosion. The black liquor fir- 
ing controls include devices that monitor^ 
and automatically divert the liquor from the 
furnace if solids content is 58% or lower. 

e) In addition to the general inspection re- 
quirements for all watertube-type boilers, 
particular awareness in the following areas 
is necessary: 

1) Furnace — the type and scope of wall, 
roof, and water screen tube inspection 
is dependent on materials of construc- 
tion, type of construction, and mode of 
boiler operation. In all cases, furnace A08 
wall opening tubes need inspection 
for thinning and cracking. The typical 
water-cooled smelt spout can admit A08 
water to the furnace if the spout fails. 
Common practice is to replace these 
spouts in an interval shorter than that 
in which failure is known to occur. 



33 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



A08 



2) Water — percentage of sol ids contained 
in the black liquor before entering the 
furnace shall be closely monitored. 
Verify that the black liquor firing system 
will automatically divert the liquor if 
solids drop to or below 58%. 

3) Corrosion/erosion — the potential 
consequences of corrosion or erosion 
(smelt-water explosion due to pres- 
sure-retaining part failure) requires a 
well planned and executed inspection 
program by the owner. Maintenance of 
boiler water quality is crucial to mini- 
mizing tube failure originating from the 
water side. 

4) Tubes — depending on type of con- 
struction, inspect for damage such as 
loss of corrosion protection, thinning, 
erosion, overheating, warping, elonga- 
tion, bulging, blistering, and misalign- 
ment. If floor tubes may have been 
mechanically damaged or overheated, 
clean the floor and perform the appro- 
priate type of inspection for suspected 
damage. Excursions in water treatment 
may result in scale and sludge on in- 
ternal surfaces, creating conditions of 
poor heat transfer and ultimately caus- 
ing tube cracks or rupture. 

5) Welds — leaks frequently originate at 
welds. The owner and repair agency 
should carefully plan and inspect all re- 
pair welds and seal welds that cou Id ad- 
mit water to the furnace. Tube butt welds 
that could admit water to the furnace 
should be examined by a volumetric 
NDE method acceptable to the inspec- 
tor. Tube leaks at attachment welds may 
originate from the internal stress-assisted 
corrosion (SAC). Minor upsets in boiler 
water quality and improper chemical 
cleaning may initiate SAC. 

6) Emergency Response to Water Entering 
Furnace — operators of Kraft recovery 
boilers should have a plan to imme- 
diately terminate all fuel firing and 
drain water from the boiler if a tube is 



known or suspected to be leaking into 
the furnace. This system may be called 
"Emergency Shutdown Procedure" or 
"ESP." The inspector should confirm 
the ESP is tested and maintained such A07 
that it will function as intended and 
that operators will activate the system 
when a leak into the furnace occurs or 
is suspected. 

7) Overheating — tube rupture due to 
overheating from low water level may 
admit water to the furnace. The inspec- 
tor should verify a redundant low-wa- 
ter protection system is provided and 
maintained. 

f) Recommended procedures for inspection of 
black liquor recovery boilers are identified 
below: 

1 ) American Forest and Paper Association 
"Recovery Boiler Reference Manual 
for Owners and Operators of Kraft 
Recovery Boilers," sponsored by the 
Operations/Maintenance Subcommit- 
tee of the Recovery Boiler Committee, 
Volumes I, II, and III (current published 
editions). 

2) The Black Liquor Recovery Boiler 
Advisory Committee, Recommended 
Practices: 

a. Emergency Shutdown Procedure 
(ESP) and Procedure for Testing 
ESP 



b. Safe Firing of Black Liquor Recovery 
Boilers 

c. System for Black Liquor Boilers 

d. Safe Firing of Black Liquor in Black 
Liquor Recovery Boilers 

e. Safe Firing of Auxiliary Fuel in Black 
Liquor Recovery Boilers 

f. Thermal Oxidation of Waste Streams 
in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers 



A07 



34 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 



g. Instrumentation Checklist and Clas- 
sification Guide for Instruments 
and Control Systems used in the 
Operation of Black Liquor Recovery 
Boilers 

h. Recommended Guidelines for Per- 
sonnel Safety 

3) Technical Association of the Pulp and 
Paper Industry (TAPPI), Technical Infor- 
mation Papers: 

a. 0402-13, Guidelines for Specifi- 
cation and Inspection of Electric 
Resistance Welded (ERW) and 
Seamless Boiler Tube for Critical 
and Non-Critical Service 

b. 0402-1 5, Installation and Repair of 
Pin Studs in Black Liquor Recovery 
Boilers 

c. 0402-18, Ultrasonic Testing (UT) 
for Tube Thickness in Black Liquor 
Recovery Boilers 

1 . Part I: Guidelines for Accurate 
Tube Thickness Testing 

2. Part II: Default Layouts for 
Tube Thickness Surveys in 
Various Boiler Zones 

d. 0402-21, Ultrasonic Technician 
Performance Test for Boiler Tube 
Inspection 



e. 



0402-30, Inspection for Cracking 
of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor 
Recovery Boilers 



f. 0402-31, Guidelines for Evaluat- 
ing the Quality of Boiler Tube Butt 
Welds with Ultrasonic Testing 

g. 0402-33, Guideline for Obtaining 
High Quality Radiographic Testing 
(RT) of Butt Welds in Boiler Tubes 



2.3 



2.3.1 



PRESSURE VESSELS 



SCOPE 



This section provides guidelines for inservice 
inspection of pressure vessels used to contain 
pressure either internal or external. This pres- 
sure may be obtained from an external source 
or by the application of heat from a direct or 
indirect source or a combination thereof. 



2.3.2 



SERVICE CONDITIONS 



b) 



Pressure vessels are designed for a variety 
of service conditions. The media that a pres- 
sure vessel contains and the temperature 
and pressure at which it operates should 
be considered in establishing inspection 
criteria. Usage, materials, and installa- 
tion conditions should be considered in 
determining damage mechanisms that 
will affect the mechanical integrity of a 
pressure vessel as described in Section 3 
of this Part. The general requirements for 
safety, pre-inspection, and post-inspection 
activities are specified in Section 1 of this 
Part and should be followed in conjunction 
with the specific requirements outlined in 
this section when performing inspections of 
pressure vessels. There may be occasions 
where more detailed procedures will be 
required. 

The type of inspection given to pressure 
vessels should take into consideration the 
condition of the vessel and the environ- 
ment in which it operates. This inspection 
may be either external or internal and use 
a variety of nondestructive examination 
methods as described in Section 4 of this 
Part. The inspection method may be per- 
formed when the vessel is operating on- 
stream or depressurized, but shall provide 
the necessary information to determine 
that the essential sections of the vessel are 
in satisfactory condition to operate for the 
expected time interval. On-stream inspec- 
tion, including while under pressure, may 
be used to satisfy inspection requirements 



35 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



provided the accuracy of the method can 
be demonstrated. 

c) New pressure vessels are placed in service 
to operate under their design conditions for 
a period of time determined by the service 
conditions and the corrosion rate. If the 
pressure vessel is to remain in operation, 
the allowable conditions of service and the 
length of time before the next inspection 
shall be based on the conditions of the 
vessel as determined by the inspection. See 
4.4.7 for determining remaining service life 
and inspection intervals. 



2.3.3 



EXTERNAL INSPECTION 



The purpose of an external inspection is to 
provide information regarding the general 
condition of the pressure vessel. The following 
should be reviewed: 

a) Insulation or Other Coverings 

If it is found that external coverings such as 
insulation and corrosion-resistant linings 
are in good condition and there is no rea- 
son to suspect any unsafe condition behind 
them, it is not necessary to remove them for 
inspection of the vessel. However, it may 
be advisable to remove small portions of 
the coverings in order to investigate attach- 
ments, nozzles, and material conditions. 

Note: Precautions should be taken when 
removing insulation while vessel is under 
pressure. 

b) Evidence of Leakage 

Any leakage of gas, vapor, or liquid should 
be investigated. Leakage coming from 
behind insulation coverings, supports or 
settings, or evidence of past leakage should 
be thoroughly investigated by removing 
any covering necessary until the source of 
leakage is established. 

c) Structural Attachments 

The pressure vessel mountings should be 
checked for adequate allowance for expan- 
sion and contraction, such as provided by 



slotted bolt holes or unobstructed saddle 
mountings. Attachments of legs, saddles, 
skirts, or other supports should be exam- 
ined for distortion or cracks at welds. 

d) Vessel Connections 

Manholes, reinforcing plates, nozzles, or 
other connections should be examined for 
cracks, deformation, or other defects. Bolts 
and nuts should be checked for corrosion 
or defects. Weep holes in reinforcing plates 
should remain open to provide visual evi- 
dence of leakage as well as to prevent pres- 
sure buildup between the vessel and the 
reinforcing plate. Accessible flange faces 
should be examined for distortion and to 
determine the condition of gasket-seating 
surfaces. 

e) Miscellaneous Conditions 

1 ) Abrasives — The surfaces of the vessel 
should be checked for erosion. 

2) Dents — Dents in a vessel are deforma- 
tions caused by their coming in contact 
with a blunt object in such a way that 
the thickness of metal is not materially 
impaired. Dents can create stress risers 
that may lead to cracking. 

3) Distortion — If any distortion is sus- 
pected or observed, the overall dimen- 
sions of the vessel shall be checked to 
determine the extent and seriousness 
of the distortion. 

4) Cuts or Gouges — Cuts or gouges can 
cause high stress concentrations and 
decrease the wall thickness. Depending 
upon the extent of the defect, it may be 
necessary to repair. 

5) Surface Inspection — The surfaces of 
shells and heads should be examined 
for possible cracks, blisters, bulges, cor- 
rosion, erosion, and other evidence of 
deterioration, giving particular attention 
to the skirt and to support attachment 
and knuckle regions of the heads. 



36 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 INSPECTION 



6) Weld Joints — Welded joints and the 
adjacent heat affected zones should be 
examined for cracks or other defects. 
Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant 
examination is a useful means for doing 
this. 

7) Riveted Vessels — On riveted vessels, 
examine rivet head, butt strap, plate, 
and caulked edge conditions. If rivet 
shank corrosion is suspected, hammer 
testing for soundness or spot radiogra- 
phy at an angle to the shank axis may 
be useful. 



2.3.4 INTERNAL INSPECTION 

a) A general visual inspection is the first step 
in making an internal inspection of pressure 
vessels that are susceptible to corrosion. 
Vessels should be inspected for the condi- 
tions identified in Section 3 of this Part. 

b) The following should be reviewed: 

1) Vessel Connections 

Threaded connections should be in- 
spected to ensure that an adequate 
number of threads are engaged. All 
openings leading to any external fit- 
tings or controls should be examined 
as thoroughly as possible to ensure they 
are free from obstructions. 

2) Vessel Closures 

Any special closures including those 
on autoclaves, normally termed quick 
actuating (quick opening) closures, 
see 2.3.6.5, which are used frequently 
in the operation of a pressure vessel, 
should be checked by the Inspector 
for integrity and wear. A check should 
also be made for cracks at areas of 
high stress concentration. Door safety 
interlock mechanisms, "man inside" 
alarm and associated audible and vi- 
sual alarms should be verified. The man 
inside alarm is a safety cable running 
the length of the internal workspace 
that can be pulled by the operator, 



thereby shutting down all autoclave 
functions and initiating audible and 
visual alarms. 

3) Vessel Internals 

a. Where pressure vessels are equipped 
with removable internals, these 
internals need not be completely 
removed provided assurance exists 
that deterioration in regions ren- 
dered inaccessible by the internals 
is not occurring to an extent that 
might constitute a hazard, or to an 
extent beyond that found in more 
readily accessible parts of the ves- 
sel. 

b. If a preliminary inspection reveals 
unsafe conditions such as loose or 
corroded internals or badly cor- 
roded internal ladders or platforms, 
steps should be taken to remove or 
repair such parts so that a detailed 
inspection may be made. 

4) Corrosion 

The type of corrosion (local pitting or 
uniform), its location, and any obvious 
data should be established. Data col- 
lected for vessels in similar service will 
aid in locating and analyzing corrosion 
in the vessel being inspected. The liquid 
level lines, the bottom, and the shell 
area adjacent to and opposite inlet 
nozzles are often locations of most se- 
vere corrosion. Welded seams, nozzles, 
and areas adjacent to welds are often 
subjected to accelerated corrosion. 



2.3.5 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE 

VESSEL PARTS AND 
APPURTENANCES 

Parts and appurtenances to be inspected de- 
pend upon the type of vessel and its operating 
conditions. The Inspector should be familiar 
with the operating conditions of the vessel and 
with the causes and characteristics of potential 
defects and deterioration. 



37 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



2.3.5.1 



GAGES 



a) The pressure indicated by the required gage 
should be compared with other gages on 
the same system. If the pressure gage is 
not mounted on the vessel itself, it shall be 
installed in such a manner that it correctly 
indicates the actual pressure in the vessel. 
When required, the accuracy of pressure 
gages should be verified by comparing the 
readings with a calibrated test gage or a 
dead weight tester. 

b) The location of a pressure gage should be 
observed to determine whether it is exposed 
to high temperature from an external source 
or to internal heat due to lack of protec- 
tion by a proper siphon or trap. Provisions 
should be made for blowing out the pipe 
leading to the steam gage 



2.3.5.2 SAFETY DEVICES 

See 2.5 for the inspection of safety devices 
(pressure relief valves and non-closing devices 
such as rupture disks) used to prevent the over- 
pressure of pressure vessels. 



2.3.5.3 CONTROLS/DEVICES 

a) Any control device attached to a vessel 
should be demonstrated by operation or the 
Inspector should review the procedures and 
records for verification of proper operation. 

b) Temperature measuring devices shall be 
checked for accuracy and general condi- 
tion. 



2.3.5.4 RECORDS REVIEW 

a) The Inspector shall review any pressure 
vessel log, record of maintenance, corro- 
sion rate record, or any other examination 
results. The Inspector should consult with 
the owner or user regarding repairs or al- 
terations made, if any, since the last inter- 
nal inspection. The Inspector shall review 



the records of such repairs or alterations 
for compliance with applicable require- 
ments. 

b) A permanent record shall be maintained 
for each pressure vessel. This record should 
include the following: 

1) An ASME Manufacturer's Data Report 
or, if the vessel is not ASME Code 
stamped other equivalent specifications 
or reports. 

2) Form NB-5, Boiler or Pressure Vessel 
Data Report — First Internal Inspec- 
tion, may be used for this purpose. It 
shall show the following identification 
numbers as applicable: 

a. National Board No. 

b. Jurisdiction No. 

c. Manufacturer Serial No. 

d. Owner-User No. 

3) Complete pressure-relieving device 
information, including safety or safety 
relief valve spring data, or rupture disk 
data and date of latest inspection. 

4) Progressive record including, but not 
limited to, the following: 

a. Location and thickness of monitor A07 
samples and other critical inspec- 
tion locations. 

b. Limiting metal temperature and 
location on the vessel when this is a 
factor in establishing the minimum 
allowable thickness. 

c. Computed required metal thick- 
nesses and maximum allowable 
working pressure for the design 
temperature and pressure-reliev- 
ing device opening pressure, static 
head, and other loadings. 



38 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



d. Test pressure, if tested at the time 
of inspection. 

e. Required date of next inspection. 

5) Date of installation and date of any 
significant change in service conditions 
(pressure, temperature, character of 
contents, or rate of corrosion). 

6) Drawings showing sufficient details to 
permit calculation of the service rating 
of all components on pressure vessels 
used in process operations subject to 
corrosive conditions. Detailed data 
with sketches, where necessary, may 
serve this purpose when drawings are 
not available. 



2.3.6 DESCRIPTION AND CONCERNS 

OF SPECIFIC TYPES OF 

PRESSURE VESSELS 

Inspection and examination requirements iden- 
tified below should also include any additional 
requirements mentioned above. 



2.3.6.1 



DEAERATORS 



a) A deaerator is used to remove undesirable 
gases and is exposed to the following ser- 
vice conditions: harmful gases, fluctuation 
in temperature and pressure, erosion, and 
vibration. The air and water atmosphere in 
the deaerator has a corrosive effect and may 
contain high concentrations of hydrogen 
ions, which can cause hydrogen crack- 
ing, hydrogen embrittlement, or corrosion 
fatigue. The water entering the deaerator 
sometimes carries acids or oil that can 
cause acidic attacks on the metal. 

b) Inspection shall consist of the following: 

1) Welds — Inspect all longitudinal and 
circumferential welds, including the 
Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), visually 



along their entire length. Examine noz- 
zle and attachment welds for erosion, 
corrosion, or cracking. Inspect with 
special attention all exposed internal 
welds at or below the normal water 
line. 

2) Shell — Inspect exterior surfaces for 
corrosion or leaks. Inspect interior for 
pitting, corrosion, erosion, thinning, 
wastage of metal, cracks, etc. 

3) Spray Nozzles and Trays — Inspect all 
nozzles and spray areas for erosion, 
wear, wastage, and broken parts or sup- 
ports. Check to see that nozzles are not 
plugged and that all lines to nozzles are 
open. Inspect all trays for holes, erosion, 
wastage, broken or defective brackets, 
and broken support attachments. 

4) Condenser and Vents — Examine all 
vent lines to see that they are open 
to ensure proper exiting of the gases. 
Inspect the condenser unit to verify it 
is operable and not plugged with scale 
or sludge. Check for corrosion, pitting, 
erosion, and broken parts. 

5) Supports — Inspect all support struc- 
tures for mechanical damage, cracks, 
loose bolting, and bent or warped 
components. Check all welds, espe- 
cially attaching supports to the pressure 
boundary. 



2.3.6.2 COMPRESSED AIR VESSELS 

a) Compressed air vessels include receivers, 
separators, filters, and coolers. Consider- 
ations of concern include temperature vari- 
ances, pressure limitations, vibration, and 
condensation. Drain connections should be 
verified to be free of any foreign material 
that may cause plugging. 



39 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



b) Inspection shall consist of the following: 2.3.6.3 EXPANSION TANKS 



1 ) Welds — Inspect all welds for cracking 
or gouging, corrosion, and erosion. Par- 
ticular attention should be given to the 
welds that attach brackets supporting 
the compressor. These welds may fail 
due to vibration. 

2) Shells/Heads — Externally, inspect the 
base material for environmental dete- 
rioration and impacts from objects. Hot 
spots and bulges are signs of overheat- 
ing and should be noted and evaluated 
for acceptability. Particular attention 
should be paid to the lower half of the 
vessel for corrosion and leakage. For 
vessels with man ways or inspection 
openings, an internal inspection should 
be performed for corrosion, erosion, 
pitting, excessive deposit buildup, and 
leakage around inspection openings. 
UT thickness testing may be used where 
internal inspection access is limited or 
to determine actual thickness when 
corrosion is suspected. 

3) Fittings and Attachments — Inspect all 
fittings and attachments for alignment, 
support, deterioration, damage, and 
leakage around threaded joints. Any 
internal attachments such as supports, 
brackets, or rings shall be visually ex- 
amined for wear, corrosion, erosion, 
and cracks. 

4) Operation — Check the vessel name- 
plate to determine the allowed working 
pressure and temperature of the vessel. 
Ensure the set pressure of the safety 
valve does not exceed that allowed on 
the vessel nameplate and determine that 
the capacity of the safety valve is greater 
than the capacity of the compressor. 
Ensure there is a functioning manual or 
automatic condensate drain. 

5) Quick-Closure Attachments — Filter- 
type vessels usually have one quick- 
type closure head for making filter 
changes, see 2.3.6.5. 



a) The purpose of an expansion tank is to 
provide an air cushion to a system that will 
allow for expansion and contraction, thus 
minimizing fluctuations in pressure due to 
temperature variances. These vessels are 
susceptible to corrosion due to the air and 
water interface. 

b) Inspection shall consist of the following; 

1) Design/Operation — Verify from the 
nameplate the Code of Construction, 
temperature, and pressure ratings to en- 
sure jurisdictional and system compat- 
ibility. It is common to find expansion 
tanks water logged due to leakage of air 
out of the tank; therefore, it is important 
to verify the water level either by sight 
glass or sounding the tank. If the vessel 
is fitted with a water sight glass, inspect 
for visual cleanliness, water leakage, 
and gasket tightness. 

2) Surface Conditions — Check all surfac- 
es external and internal, if possible, for 
any leaks, corrosion, erosion, cracks, 
and dents that may lead to failure. 
Thickness checks may be applicable to 
determine any reduction of base mate- 
rial thickness. 

3) Supports and Attachments — These 
vessels are usually suspended from the 
ceiling by hangers or straps causing 
concentration of stresses in these areas. 
Specifically inspect for corrosion, wear, 
and cracks in these areas. 



2.3.6.4 LIQUID AMMONIA VESSELS 

Vessels in liquid ammonia service are suscep- 
tible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) (see 
3.3.2 [b]) in areas of high stress. High strength 
and coarse-grained materials seem to be more 
at risk of SCC than are fine-grained or more 
moderate strength materials, although no 
commonly used steels appear to be immune 
to the problem. Postweld heat treatment of 



4D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



new or weld-repaired vessels or cold formed 
heads is beneficial in reducing the incidence 
of SCC. The presence of 0.2% minimum water 
in the liquid ammonia also inhibits SCC. Any 
leak should be thoroughly investigated and the 
necessary corrective action initiated. 

a) Inspection of Parts and Appurtenances 

1) Where existing openings permit, per- 
form a visual internal inspection of the 
vessel. Look for any obvious cracks 
(very advanced SCC) and note areas 
that are subject to high stress such as 
welds, welded repairs, head-to-shell 
transitions, sharp interior corners, and 
interior surfaces opposite external at- 
tachments or supports. Alternatively, an 
internal inspection may be conducted 
from the outside utilizing suitable NDE, 
e.g., ultrasonic techniques. 

2) If valves or fittings are in place, check 
to ensure that these are complete and 
functional. Parts made of copper, zinc, 
silver, or alloys of these metals are 
unsuitable for ammonia service and 
should be replaced with parts fabricat- 
ed of steel or other suitable materials. 

3) Fittings should be removed or other- 
wise protected from power buffing or 
light sandblasting when preparing the 
interior surface of the vessels for inspec- 
tion. 

4) All interior welds and highly stressed 
areas should be examined by the wet 
fluorescent magnetic particle-testing 
method (WFMT) using an A/C yoke for 
magnetization. Note that weld cracks 
are often transverse in orientation. It is 
extremely important to ensure that the 
NDE method used will disclose cracks 
in any orientation. 

5) If cracks are discovered, a calculation 
must be made to determine what depth 
of grinding may be carried out for crack 



removal (without encroaching on the 
minimum thickness required by the 
construction standard or equivalent). 

6) Where possible, crack removal by 
grinding is the preferred method of re- 
pair. Since the stresses at the crack tips 
are quite high, even very fine cracking 
should be eliminated. 

7) Where crack depth is such that removal 
requires weld repair, a weld procedure 
should be employed that will minimize 
HAZ hardening and residual stresses. 
Whenever possible, weld repairs, re- 
gardless of their size, should be post- 
weld heat treated. 

8) Re-inspect by WFMT to ensure com- 
plete crack removal. 

9) It is not intended to inhibitor limit the 
use of other evaluation methods. It is 
recognized that acoustic emission and 
fracture mechanics are acceptable tech- 
niques for assessing structural integrity 
of vessels. Analysis by fracture mechan- 
ics may be used to assess the structural 
integrity of vessels when complete re- 
moval of all ammonia stress cracks is 
not practical. If alternative methods are 
used, the above recommendation that 
all cracks be removed, even fine cracks 
may not apply. 

b) Inspection of Insulated Vessels 

1) Insulated pressure vessels can suffer 
from aggressive external corrosion that 
is often found beneath moist insulation. 
The Inspector should closely examine 
the external insulation scaling surfaces 
for cold spots, bulges, rust stains, or any 
unusual conditions in previous repair 
areas. Bulging or distorted insulation 
on refrigerated vessels may indicate 
the formation of ice patches between 
the vessel shell and insulation due to 
trapped moisture. Careful observation 
is also required where the temperature 
of insulated vessels cycle continu- 



41 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



ally through the freezing temperature 
range. 

2) The lower 1/3 to 1/2 and the bottom 
portions of insulated vessels should re- 
ceive special focus, as condensation or 
moisture may gravitate down the vessel 
shell and soak into the insulation, keep- 
ing it moist for long periods of time. 
Penetration locations in the insulation 
such as saddle supports, nozzles, or 
fittings should be examined closely for 
potential moisture ingress paths. When 
moisture penetrates the insulation, the 
insulation may actually work in reverse, 
holding moisture in the insulation and/ 
or near the vessel shell. 

3) Insulated vessels that are run on an 
intermittent basis or that have been 
out of service require close scrutiny. 
In general, a visual inspection of the 
external surfaces of insulated vessels 
should be conducted once per year. 

4) The most common and superior method 
to inspect for suspected corrosion un- 
der insulation damage (CUI) is to com- 
pletely or partially remove the insula- 
tion for visual inspection. The method 
most commonly utilized to inspect for 
CUI without insulation removal is by 
x-ray and isotope radiography (film 
or digital) or by real time radiography, 
utilizing imaging scopes and surface 
profilers. The real time imaging tools 
will work well if the vessel geometry 
and insulation thickness allows. Other 
less common methods to detect CUI 
include specialized electromagnetic 
methods (pulsed eddy current and 
electromagnetic waves) and long range 
ultrasonic techniques (guided waves). 

5) There are also several methods to detect 
moisture soaked insulation, which is 
often the beginning for potential CUI 
damage. Moisture probe detectors, 
neutron backscatter, and thermogra- 
phy are tools that can be used for CUI 
moisture screening. 



6) Proper surface treatment (coating) of the 
vessel external shell and maintaining 
weather tight external insulation are the 
keys to prevention of CUI damage. 

c) Gages and Pressure-Relieving Devices 

1 ) The Inspector should note the pressure 
indicated by the gage and compare it 
with other gages on the same system. 
If the pressure gage is not mounted on 
the vessel itself, it should be ascertained 
that the gage is installed on the system 
in such a manner that it correctly indi- 
cates actual pressure in the vessel. 

2) See 2.5 for the inspection of safety relief 
devices (pressure relief valves) used to 
prevent the overpressure of liquid am- 
monia vessels. Pressure- re lief devices 
in ammonia service shall not be tested 

in place using system pressure. Bench A07 
testing is required. 



2.3.6.5 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE 
VESSELS WITH QUICK- 
ACTUATING CLOSURES 

a) This section describes guidelines for in- 
spection of pressure vessels equipped 
with quick-actuating closures. Due to the 
many different designs of quick-actuating 
closures, potential failures of components 
that are not specifically covered should be 
considered. The scope of inspection should 
include areas affected by abuse or lack of 
maintenance and a check for inoperable or 
bypassed safety and warning devices. 

b) Temperatures above that for which the 
quick-actuating closure was designed can 
have an adverse effect on the safe operation 
of the device. If parts are found damaged 
and excessive temperatures are suspected 
as the cause, the operating temperatures 
may have exceeded those temperatures 
recommended by the manufacturer. Rapid 
fluctuations in temperatures due to rapid 
start-up and shutdown may lead to cracks 



42 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



or yielding caused by excessive warping 
and high thermal stress. A careful observa- 
tion should be made of the condition of 
the complete installation, including main- 
tenance and operation, as a guide in form- 
ing an opinion of the care the equipment 
receives. The history of the vessel should be 
established, including: year built, materials 
of construction, extent of postweld heat 
treatment, previous inspection results, and 
repairs or alterations performed. Any leak 
should be thoroughly investigated and the 
necessary corrective action initiated. 

1 ) Inspection of Parts and Appurtenances 

a. Seating surfaces of the closure 
device, including but not limited 
to the gaskets, O-rings, or any me- 
chanical appurtenance to ensure 
proper alignment of the closure 
to the seating surface, should be 
inspected. This inspection can be 
made by using powdered chalk or 
any substance that will indicate that 
the closure is properly striking the 
seating surface of the vessel flange. 
If this method is used, a check 
should be made to ensure that: 

1 . Material used will not con- 
taminate the gasket or mate- 
rial with which it comes into 
contact. 

2. The substance used should be 
completely removed after the 
examination. 

b. The closure mechanism of the 
device should be inspected for 
freedom of movement and proper 
contact with the locking elements. 
This inspection should indicate 
that the movable portions of the 
locking mechanism are striking the 
locking element in such a manner 
that full stroke can be obtained. 
Inspection should be made to en- 



sure that the seating surface of the 
locking mechanism is free of metal 
burrs and deep scars, which would 
indicate misalignment or improper 
operation. A check should be made 
for proper alignment of the door 
hinge mechanisms to ensure that 
adjustment screws and locking 
nuts are properly secured. When 
deficiencies are noted, the follow- 
ing corrective actions should be 
initiated: 

1 . If any deterioration of the gas- 
ket, O-ring, etc., is found, the 
gasket, O-ring, etc., should 
be replaced immediately. 
Replacements should be in 
accordance with the vessel 
manufacturer's specifications. 

2. If any cracking or exces- 
sive wear is discovered on 
the closing mechanism, the 
owner or user should contact 
the original manufacturer 

of the device for spare parts 
or repair information, if this 
cannot be accomplished, the 
owner or user should contact 
an organization competent 
in quick-actuating closure 
design and construction prior 
to implementing any repairs. 

3. Defective safety or warning 
devices should be repaired 
or replaced prior to further 
operation of the vessel. 

4. Deflections, wear, or warping 
of the sealing surfaces may 
cause out-of-roundness and 
misalignment. The manufac- 
turer of the closure should 
be contacted for acceptable 
tolerances for out-of-round- 
ness and deflection. 

5. The operation of the closure 
device through its normal 
operating cycle should be 
observed while under control 
of the operator. This should 



43 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 



indicate if the operator is fol- 
lowing posted procedures and 
if the operating procedures for 
the vessel are adequate. 

2) Gages, Safety Devices, and Controls 

a. The required pressure gage should 
be installed so that it is visible from 
the operating area located in such 
a way that the operator can accu- 
rately determine the pressure in the 
vessel while it is in operation. The 
gage dial size should be of such a 
diameter that it can be easily read 
by the operator. This gage should 
have a pressure range of at least 1 - 
1/2 times, but not more than four 
times, the operating pressure of the 
vessel. There should be no interven- 
ing valve between the vessel and 
gage- 

b. The pressure gage should be of a 
type that will give accurate read- 
ings, especially when there is a 
rapid change in pressure. It should 
be of rugged construction and 
capable of withstanding severe ser- 
vice conditions. Where necessary, 
the gage should be protected by a 
siphon or trap. 



c. 



Pressure gages intended to measure 
the operating pressure in the vessel 
are not usually sensitive or easily 
read at low pressures approaching 
atmospheric. It may be advisable to 
install an auxiliary gage that reads 
inches of water (mm of mercury) 
and is intended to measure pres- 
sure from atmospheric through low 
pressures. This gives assurance that 
there is zero pressure in the ves- 
sel before opening. It would be 
necessary to protect the auxiliary 
low pressure gage from the higher 
operating pressures. 



d. Provisions should be made to 
calibrate pressure gages or to have 
them checked against a master gage 
as frequently as necessary. 

e. A check should be made to ensure 
that the closure and its holding 
elements must be fully engaged in 
their intended operating position 
before pressure can be applied to 
the vessel. A safety interlock device 
should be provided that prevents 
the opening mechanism from oper- 
ating unless the vessel is completely 
depressurized. 

f. Quick-actuating closures held in 
position by manually operated 
locking devices or mechanisms, 
and which are subject to leakage of 
the vessel contents prior to disen- 
gagement of the locking elements 
and release of the closure, shall be 
provided with an audible and/or 
visible warning device to warn the 
operator if pressure is applied to 
the vessel before the closure and 
its holding elements are fully en- 
gaged, and to warn the operator if 
an attempt is made to operate the 
locking device before the pressure 
within the vessel is released. Pres- 
sure tending to force the closure 
clear of the vessel must be released 
before the closure can be opened 
for access. 



2.4 PIPING AND PIPING SYSTEMS 



2.4.1 SCOPE 

This section provides guidelines for internal 
and external inspection of piping and piping 
systems. 



44 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



2.4.2 



SERVICE CONDITIONS 



a) Piping systems are designed for a variety of 
service conditions. The media that a piping 
system contains, the temperature at which 
it operates, and the piping corrosion history 
should be considered in establishing pip- 
ing inspection criteria. Particular attention 
should be given to piping systems that are 
subject to corrosion, high temperatures, 
and hazardous fluid or gasses. Piping op- 
erating beyond design temperature limits 
can cause sufficient deterioration of piping 
material properties due to graphitization, 
embrittlement, and creep to render the 
piping system unfit for continued service. 

b) Any externally or internally corroded pip- 
ing should be evaluated for integrity and 
repaired or replaced as necessary. 

c) Requirements specified for inspection ac- 
tivities and safety is identified in Section 
1 of this Part and should be reviewed and 
followed as applicable. 



2.4.3 ASSESSMENT OF PIPING 

DESIGN 

a) All pipe material and fittings should be 
properly rated for the maximum service 
conditions to which they are subjected 

A07 under normal operating conditions and 
shall be provided with suitable relief device 
protection. The design corrosion allowance 
of the piping system should be considered 
when reviewing the current piping thick- 
ness data. 

b) If a piping system has a previous history of 
ultrasonic wall thickness measurements, 
the Inspector should review the data and 
request additional wall thickness measure- 
ments, if warranted. 



2.4.4 EXTERNAL INSPECTION OF 

PIPING 

Piping should be externally inspected for the 
following: 

a) Evidence of leakage. (See 2.4.6.) 

b) Provision for expansion and adequate sup- 
port. (See 2.4.7.) 

c) Proper alignment of piping joints and bolted 
connections. Check for missing bolts or 
studs, nuts, and improper or inadequate 
bolted connection thread engagement. Also 
check visible gasket and gasket alignment 
condition. Threaded connections should 
also be inspected for inadequate or exces- 
sive thread engagement. 

d) Past or present evidence of excessive vibra- 
tion or cyclic activity such as loose or miss- 
ing piping supports or piping insulation. If 
such activity is present, piping and piping 
joints should be inspected for potential 
fatigue cracking. 

e) Evidence of general corrosion, excessive 
external pitting, corrosion scale buildup, 
exfoliation, erosion, cuts, dents, distortion, 
or other detrimental conditions such as 
pipe sweating, water hammer damage, or 
hot spots. Ultrasonic thickness measure- 
ments should be taken in suspect areas 
to ensure adequate remaining piping wall 
thickness. 

f) Evidence of corrosion under piping insula- 
tion or other weather related damage to 
piping coatings. 

g) Evidence of freeze damage such as bulging, 
striations, or surface fissures. 

h) Dead leg or stagnant piping tends to have 
internal corrosion issues. Ultrasonic thick- 
ness measurements should be taken in sus- 
pect locations. Radiography is also useful 
to assess internal deposits and subsequent 
corrosion in no flow piping locations. 



45 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



2.4.5 INTERNAL INSPECTION OF 

PIPING 

a) Where the internal surfaces of piping, 
valves, and gasket surfaces are accessible 
to visual examination, internal inspection 
should include an examination of all avail- 
able surfaces. Nondestructive examina- 
tion for internal corrosion may be used to 
supplement the inspection. Boroscope or 
camera inspections are also useful to aug- 
ment piping internal inspections. 

b) Internal pipe surfaces should be cleaned 
before inspection, if necessary. 

c) The internal surfaces of piping, piping 
welds, and connections, fittings, valves, 
and gasket surfaces should be inspected for 
localized corrosion, pitting, erosion, blister- 
ing, cracking, and impingement damage. 



2.4.6 



EVIDENCE OF LEAKAGE 



piping expansion and support. Piping 
supports shall indicate loads within their 
design range. Piping supports should keep A07 
piping in alignment and prevent piping 
from colliding with other piping or station- 
ary objects. The alignment of connections 
between anchored equipment should be 
observed to determine if any change in po- 
sition of the equipment due to settling, ex- 
cessive cyclic activity, steady state stresses 
beyond design allowances, or other causes 
has placed an undue strain on the piping or 
its connections. Inadequate support or the 
lack of provision for expansion may cause 
broken attachment welds, cracks, or leak- 
age at fittings. Missing, damaged, or loose 
insulation materials may be an indication 
of vibration or pipe movements resulting 
from improper support. 

b) Piping support locations should be closely 
inspected at the support points for external 
and crevice corrosion concerns. 



a) A leak should be thoroughly investigated 
and corrective action initiated. Leaks 
beneath piping insulation should be ap- 
proached with caution, especially when 
removing insulation from a pressurized 
piping system for inspection. 

b) A pressure test may be required to obtain 
additional information regarding the extent 
of a defect or detrimental condition. 

c) To determine tightness, the test pressure 
need be no greater than the normal operat- 
ing pressure. The metal temperature should 
be not less than 70°F (21 °C) and the maxi- 
mum metal temperature during inspection 
should not exceed 120°F (49°C). The po- 
tential corrosive effect of the test fluid on 
the piping material should be considered. 



2.4.8 INSPECTION OF GAGES, 

SAFETY DEVICES, AND 
CONTROLS 



2.4.8.1 GAGES 

Piping system pressure gages should be re- 
moved for testing unless there is other informa- 
tion to assess their accuracy. Faulty pressure 
gages should be recalibrated or replaced as 
necessary. 



2.4.8.2 SAFETY DEVICES 

See 2.5 for information on the inspection of 
pressure-relieving devices used to prevent the 
over pressure of piping systems. 



2.4.7 PROVISIONS FOR EXPANSION 

AND SUPPORT 

a) Visual inspection should include a check 
for evidence of improper provision for 



46 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



2.4.8.3 QUICK-DISCONNECT 
COUPLING 

Piping connections utilizing a quick-disconnect 
coupling should be checked to ensure that the 
coupling and its holding elements are fully 
engaged in their intended operating position. 
Means should be provided that warn the opera- 
tor against disengaging the coupling or prevent 
the opening mechanism from operating unless 
the piping is completely depressurized. 



2.5 



2.5.1 



PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 



SCOPE 



a) The most important appurtenances on any 
pressurized system are the pressure relief 
devices provided for overpressure protec- 
tion of that system. These are devices such 
as safety valves, safety relief valves, pilot 
valves, and rupture disks or other non- 
reclosing devices that are called upon to 
operate and reduce an overpressure condi- 
tion. 

b) These devices are not designed or intended 
to control the pressure in the system dur- 
ing normal operation. Instead, they are in- 
tended to function when normal operating 
controls fail or abnormal system conditions 
are encountered. 

c) Periodic inspection and maintenance of 
these important safety devices is critical to 
ensure their continued functioning and to 
provide assurance that they will be avail- 
able when called upon to operate. See 
2.5.8 for recommended testing frequency 
for PRDs. 

d) Inspection areas of concern include: 
A07 1 ) correct set pressure; 

2) safety considerations; 

3) device data; 



4) condition of the device; 

5) condition of the installation; and 

6) testing and operational inspection. 



2.5.2 



PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA 



a) Nameplate marking or stamping of the 
device should be compared to stamping 
on the protected pressure-retaining item. 
For a single device, the set pressure shall 
be no higher than the maximum allowable 
working pressure (MAWP) marked on the 
protected pressure-retaining item or sys- 
tem. 

b) If multiple devices are provided, the differ- 
ence between set pressures shall not ex- 
ceed that permitted by the original code of 
construction. The set pressure of additional 
devices may exceed the MAWP, as permit- 
ted by the original Code of Construction. 

c) Verify nameplate capacity and, if pos- 
sible, compare to system capacity require- 
ments. 

d) Check identification on seals and ensure 
they match nameplates or other identifica- 
tion (repair or reset nameplate) on the valve 
or device. 



2.5.3 INSERVICE INSPECTION A08 

REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURE 
RELIEF DEVICE CONDITIONS 

a) Check for evidence that the valve or device 
is leaking or not sealing properly. Evidence 
of leakage through pressure-relief valves may 
indicate that the system is being operated at 
a pressure that is too close to the valve's set 
pressure. See Part 2, Supplement 8. A09 

b) Seals for adjustments should be intact and 
show no evidence of tampering. 

c) Connecting bolting should be tight and all 
bolts intact. 



47 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



d) The valve or device should be examined 
for deposits or material buildup. 

e) Evidence of rust or corrosion should be 
checked. 

f) Check for damaged or misapplied parts. 

g) If a drain hole is visible, ensure it is not 
clogged with debris or deposits. 

h) Check for test gags left in place after pres- 
sure testing of the unit. 

i) Bellows valves shall be checked to ensure 
the bonnet vent is open or piped to a safe 
location. The vent shall not be plugged 
since this will cause the valve set pressure 
to be high if the bellows develops a leak. 
Leakage noted from the vent indicates the 
bellows is damaged and will no longer 
protect the valve from the effects of back 
pressure. 



A07 2.5.4 INSERVICE INSPECTION 

A08 REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURE 

RELIEF DEVICES INSTALLATION 

CONDITION 

a) Inspect inlet piping and ensure it meets the 
requirements of the original Code of Con- 
struction. For pressure relief valves, check 
that the inlet pipe size is not smaller than 
the device inlet size. 

b) Inspect discharge piping and ensure it 
meets the original Code of Construction. 
Check that the discharge pipe size is not 
smaller than the device outlet size. 



f) Check the condition and adequacy of 
piping supports. Discharge piping should 
be supported independent of the device 
itself. 

g) Check for possible hazards to personnel 
from the valve discharge or discharge 
pipe. 

h) Check that there are no intervening isola- 
tion valves between the pressure source 
and the valve inlet or between the valve 
outlet and its point of discharge. (Isolation 
valves may be permitted in some pressure 
vessel service. See Part 1, 5.3.6 e.), and 
jurisdictional requirements. Isolation valves 
are not permitted for power boilers, heating 
boilers, or water heaters.) 

i) A change-over valve, which is used to in- 
stall two pressure relief devices on a single 
vessel location for the purpose of switching 
from one device to a spare device, is not 
considered a block valve if it is arranged 
such that there is no intermediate position 
that will isolate both pressure relief devices 
from the protected system. Change-over 
valves should be carefully evaluated to 
ensure they do not have excessive pres- 
sure drop that could affect the pressure 
relief device operation or capacity. These 
devices are commonly used in pressure ves- 
sel service. They may also be used in some 
boiler applications. It is recommended that 
the Jurisdiction be contacted to determine 
their acceptability on boiler applications. 



2.5.5 ADDITIONAL INSPECTION 

REQUIREMENTS 



c) Check that the valve drain piping is open. Additional items should be considered for the 

specified services. 

d) Check drainage of discharge piping. 



Check that inlet and discharge piping are 2.5.5.1 
not binding or placing excessive stress on 
the valve body, which can lead to distortion a) 
of the valve body and leakage or malfunc- 
tion. 



BOILERS 



If boilers are piped together with maximum 
allowable working pressures differing by 
more than 6%, additional protective de- 
vices may be required on the lower pressure 



48 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



units to protect them from overpressure 
from the higher pressure unit. 

b) Hot-Water Heating Boilers and Water Heaters 

1 ) These units generally do not use any wa- 
ter treatment and therefore may be more 
prone to problems with deposits form- 
ing that may impair a safety device's 
operation. Particular attention should be 
paid to signs of leakage through valves 
or buildups of deposits. 

2) Hot-water boilers tend to have buildups 
of corrosion products since the system 
is closed with little makeup. These 
products can foul or block the valve 
inlet. 

3) Water heaters will have cleaner water 
due to continuous makeup. However, 
these valves usually have a thermal 
element that will cause the valve to 
open slightly when the water is heated 
and not removed from the system. 
When this hot water evaporates in the 
discharge piping, calcium deposits 
may tend to form in the valve inlet and 
outlet. 



2.5.5.2 PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING 

Standard practice for overpressure protection 
devices is to not permit any type of isolation 
valve either before or after the device. However, 
some pressure vessel standards permit isola- 
tion valves under certain controlled conditions 
when shutting down the vessel to repair a dam- 
aged or leaking valve. If isolation block valves 
are employed, their use should be carefully 
controlled by written procedures. Block valves 
should have provisions to be either car-sealed 
or locked in an open position when not being 
used. For ASME Section VIII, Div. 1 pressure 
vessels, see UG-135, Appendix M, and juris- 
dictional rules for more information. 



2.5.5.3 



RUPTURE DISKS 



a) Rupture disks or other non-reclosing de- 
vices may be used as sole relieving devices 
or in combination with safety relief valves 
to protect pressure vessels. 

b) The selection of the correct rupture disk 
device for the intended service is critical 
to obtaining acceptable disk performance. 
Different disk designs are intended for 
constant pressure, varying pressure, or 
pulsating pressure. Some designs include 
features that make them suitable for back 
pressure and/or internal vacuum in the 
pressure vessel. 

c) The margin between the operating pressure 
and the burst pressure is an important fac- 
tor in obtaining acceptable performance 
and service life of the disk. Flat and pre- 
bulged solid metal disks are typically used 
with an operating pressure that is no more 
than 60% to 70% of the burst pressure. 
Other designs are available that increase 
the operating pressure to as much as 90% 
of the burst pressure. Disks that have been 
exposed to pressures above the normal op- 
erating pressure for which they are designed 
are subject to fatigue or creep and may fail 
at unexpectedly low pressures. Disks used 
in cyclic service are also subject to fatigue 
and may require a greater operating margin 
or selection of a device suitable for such 
service. 

d) The disk material is also critical to obtaining 
acceptable service life from the disk. Disks 
are available in a variety of materials and 
coatings, and materials that are unaffected 
by the process fluid should be used. Disks 
that experience corrosion may fail and 
open at an unexpectedly low pressure. 

e) Disk designs must also be properly selected 
for the fluid state. Some disk types are not 
suitable for use in liquid service. Some disks 
may have a different flow resistance when 
used in liquid service, which may affect the 
sizing of the disk. 



49 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



f) Information from the rupture disk manufac- 
turer, including catalog data and installa- 
tion instructions, should be consulted when 
selecting a disk for a particular service. 

g) For rupture disks and other non-reclosing 
devices, the following additional items 
should be considered during inspections. 

1) The rupture disk nameplate informa- 
tion, including stamped burst pressure 
and coincident temperature, should be 
checked to ensure it is compatible with 
the intended service. The coincident 
temperature on the rupture disk shall 
be the expected temperature of the disk 
when the disk is expected to burst and 
will usually be related to the process 
temperature, not the temperature on 
the pressure vessel nameplate. 

2) Markings indicating direction of flow 
should be carefully checked to ensure 
they are correct. Some rupture disks 
when installed in the incorrect position 
may burst well above the stamped pres- 
sure. 

3) The marked burst pressure for a rupture 
disk installed at the inlet of a safety 
relief valve shall be equal to or less 
than the safety relief valve set pres- 
sure. A marked burst pressure of 90% 
to 1 00% of the safety relief valve set 
pressure is recommended. A disk with 
a non-fragmenting design that cannot 
affect the safety relief valve shall be 
used. 

Note: If the safety relief valve set pres- 
sure is less than the vessel MAWP, the 
marked burst pressure may be higher 
than the valve set pressure, but no 
higher than the MAWP. 

4) Check that the space between a rupture 
disk and a safety relief valve is sup- 
plied with a pressure gage, try cock, 
or telltale indicator to indicate signs of 
leakage through the rupture disk. The 
safety relief valve shall be inspected 



and the leaking disk shall be replaced if 
leakage through the disk is observed. 

5) If a rupture disk is used on a valve out- 
let, the valve design must be of a type 
not influenced by back pressure due to 
leakage through the valve. Otherwise, 
for nontoxic and non-hazardous fluids, 
the space between the valve and the rup- 
tured disk shall be vented or drained to 
prevent the accumulation of pressure. 

6) For rupture disks installed on the valve 
inlet, the installation should be re- 
viewed to ensure that the combination 
rules of the original Code of Construc- 
tion have been applied. A reduction 
in the valve capacity up to 10% is 
expected when used in combination 
with a non-reclosing device. 

7) The frequency of inspection for rupture 
disks and other non-reclosing devices is 
greatly dependent on the nature of the 
contents and operation of the system 
and only general recommendations can 
be given. Inspection frequency should 
be based on previous inspection history. 
If devices have been found to be leak- 
ing, defective, or damaged by system 
contents during inspection, intervals 
should be shortened until acceptable 
inspection results are obtained. With 
this in mind, the inspection frequency 
guidelines specified in 2.5.8 are sug- 
gested for similar services. 

8) Rupture disks are often used to isolate 
pressure relief valves from services 
where fouling or plugging of the valve 
inlet occurs. This tendency should be 
considered in establishing the inspec- 
tion frequency. 

9) Since these devices are for one time 
use, a visual inspection is the only 
inspection that can be performed. 
Rupture disks that are installed using 
a specified bolting torque procedure 
cannot be reused after inspection and 
must be replaced. 



5D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A08 10) It is recommended that all rupture disks 
be periodically replaced to prevent un- 
intended failure while in service due to 
deterioration of the device. 

Rupture disks should be carefully 
checked for damage prior to installa- 
tion and handled by the disk edges, if 
possible. Any damage to the surface of 
the ruptured disk can affect the burst 
pressure. 

A08 2.5.6 PACKAGING, SHIPPING AND 

TRANSPOSITION 

A08 a) The improper packaging, shipment, and 
transport of pressure relief devices can 
have detrimental effects on device op- 
eration. Pressure relief devices should 
be treated with the same precautions as 
instrumentation, with care taken to avoid 
rough handling or contamination prior to 
installation. 

b) The following practices are recommended: 

A08 1) Valves should be securely fastened to 
pallets in the vertical position to avoid 
side loads on guiding surfaces except 
threaded and socket-weld valves up to 
2 in. (50mm) may be securely packaged 
and cushioned during transport. 

A08 2) Valve inlet and outlet connection, drain 
connections, and bonnet vents should 
be protected during shipment and stor- 
age to avoid internal contamination of 
the valve. Ensure all covers and/or plugs 
are removed prior to installation. 

A08 3) The valve should not be picked up or 
A09 carried using the lifting lever. Lifting 

levers should be wired or secured so 
they cannot be moved while the valve 
is being shipped or stored. These wires 
shall be removed before the valve is 
placed in service. 

A08 4) Pilot valve tubing should be protected 
during shipment and storage to avoid 
damage and/or breakage. 



2.5.7 TESTING AND OPERATIONAL 

INSPECTION OF PRESSURE 
RELIEF DEVICES 

a) Pressure relief valves must be periodically 
tested to ensure that they are free to operate 
and will operate in accordance with the re- 
quirements of the original Code of Construc- 
tion. Testing should include device set or 
opening pressure, reclosing pressure, where 
applicable, and seat leakage evaluation. Tol- 
erances specified for these operating require- 
ments in the original Code of Construction 
shall be used to determine the acceptability 
of test results. 

b) Testing may be accomplished by the owner 
on the unit where the valve is installed or 
at a qualified test facility. In many cases, 
testing on the unit may be impractical, es- 
pecially if the service fluid is hazardous or 
toxic. Testing on the unit may involve the 
bypassing of operating controls and should 
only be performed by qualified individuals 
under carefully controlled conditions. It is 
recommended that a written procedure be 
available to conduct this testing. 

1) The Inspector should ensure that 
calibrated equipment has been used to 
perform this test and the results should 
be documented by the owner. 

2) If the testing was performed at a test 
facility, the record of this test should 
be reviewed to ensure the valve meets 
the requirements of the original Code of 
Construction. Valves which have been 
in toxic, flammable, or other hazardous 
services shall be carefully decontami- 
nated before being tested. In particular, 
the closed bonnet of valves in these 
services may contain fluids that are not 
easily removed or neutralized. If a test 
cannot be safely performed, the valve 
shall be disassembled, cleaned, and 
decontaminated, repaired, and reset. 

3) If a valve has been removed for testing, 
the inlet and outlet connections should 
be checked for blockage by product 
buildup or corrosion. 



5 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



c) Valves may be tested using lift assist de- 
vices when testing at full pressure may 
cause damage to the valve being tested, 
or it is impractical to test at full pressure 
due to system design considerations. Lift 
assist devices apply an auxiliary load to 
the valve spindle or stem, and using the 
measured inlet pressure, applied load and 
other valve data allow the set pressure to be 
calculated. If a lift assist device is used to 
determine valve set pressure, the conditions 
of Part 3, Repairs and Alterations, Section 
4.5.3 shall be met. It should be noted that 
false set pressure readings may be obtained 
for valves which are leaking excessively or 
otherwise damaged. 

d) If valves are not tested on the system using 
the system fluid, the following test mediums 
shall be used: 

1 ) High pressure boiler safety valves, high 
temperature hot-water boiler safety re- 
lief valves, low pressure steam heating 
boilers: steam; 

2) Hot-water heating boiler safety relief 
valves: steam, air, or water; 

3) Hot water heater temperature and pres- 
sure relief valves: air or water; 

4) Air and gas service process safety relief 
valves: air, nitrogen, or other suitable 
gas; 

5) Liquid service process pressure relief 
valves: water or other suitable fluid; 

6) Process steam service safety relief 
valves: steam or air with manufacturer's 
steam to air correction factor. 

Note: Valves being tested after a repair 
must be tested on steam except as 
permitted by Part 3, Repairs and Altera- 
tions, Section 4.5.2. 

e) As an alternative to a pressure test, the valve 
may be checked by the owner for freedom 
of operation by activating the test or "try" 



lever (manual check). For high pressure 
boiler and process valves, this test should 
be performed only at a pressure greater 
than 75% of the stamped set pressure of the 
valve or the lifting device may be damaged. 
This test will only indicate that the valve is 
free to operate and does not provide any 
information on the actual set pressure. All 
manual checks should be performed with 
some pressure under the valve in order to 
flush out debris from the seat that could 
cause leakage. 

Note: The manual check at 75% or higher 
is based on lift lever design requirements 
for ASME Section I and VIM valves. Code 
design requirements for lifting levers for 
Section IV valves require that the valve be 
capable of being lifted without pressure. 

f) If a valve is found to be stuck closed, the 
system should immediately be taken out 
of service until the condition can be cor- 
rected, unless special provisions have been 
made to operate on a temporary basis (such 
as additional relief capacity provided by 
another valve). 

g) If a pressure test indicates the valve does 
not open within the requirements of the 
original Code of Construction, but oth- 
erwise is in acceptable condition, minor 
adjustments (defined as no more than twice 
the permitted set pressure tolerance) shall 
be made by an organization accredited by 

the National Board to reset the valve to the A07 
correct opening pressure. All adjustments 
shall be resealed with a seal identifying the 
responsible organization and a tag shall be 
installed identifying the organization and 
the date of the adjustment. 

h) If a major adjustment is needed, this may 
indicate the valve is in need of repair or has 
damaged or misapplied parts. Its condition 
should be investigated accordingly. 

i) Systems with multiple valves will require 
the lower set valves to be held closed to 
permit the higher set valves to be tested. 
A test clamp or "gag" should be used 



52 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



for this purpose. The spring compression 
screw shall not be tightened. It is recom- 
mended that the test clamps be applied in 
accordance with the valve manufacturer's 
instructions when the valve is at or near the 
test temperature, and be applied hand tight 
only to avoid damage to the valve stem or 
spindle. 

j) Upon completion of set pressure testing, 
ail pressure relief valve gags shall be re- 
moved. 



A07 2.5.8 RECOMMENDED INSPECTION 

AND TEST FREQUENCIES FOR 
PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 

a) Power Boilers 

1 ) Pressure less than 400 psig (2.76 MPa): 
Manual check every 6 months; pressure 
test annually to verify nameplate set 
pressure or as determined by operat- 
ing experience as verified by testing 
history. 

2) Pressure greater than 400 psig (2.76 
MPa): Pressure test to verify nameplate 
set pressure every three years or as 
determined by operating experience as 
verified by testing history. 

3) Pressure tests should be performed prior 
to bringing the boiler down for planned 
internal inspection so needed repairs 
or adjustments can be made while the 
boiler is down. 

b) High-Temperature Hot- Water Boilers 
Pressure test annually to verify nameplate 
set pressure or as determined by operating 
experience as verified by testing history. 
For safety reasons, removal and testing on 
a steam test bench is recommended. Such 
testingwill avoid damaging the safety valve 
by discharge of a steam water mixture, 
which could occur if the valve is tested in 
place. 



c) Low-Pressure Steam Heating Boilers 
Manual check quarterly; pressure test annu- 
ally prior to steam heating season to verify 
nameplate set pressure. 

d) Hot-Water Heating Boilers 

Manual check quarterly; pressure test an- 
nually prior to heating season to verify 
nameplate set pressure. 

Note: The frequencies specified for the 
testing of pressure relief valves on boilers 
is primarily based on differences between 
high pressure boilers that are continuously 
manned, and lower pressure automatically 
controlled boilers that are not monitored 
by a boiler operator at all times. When 
any boiler experiences an overpressure 
condition such that the safety or safety 
relief valves actuate, the valves should be 
inspected for seat leakage and other dam- 
age as soon as possible and any deficiencies 
corrected. 

e) Water Heaters 

Manual check every two months. Due to 
the relatively low cost of safety valves for 
this service, it is recommended that a defec- 
tive valve be replaced with a new valve if 
a repair or resetting is indicated. 

f) Pressure Vessels and Piping 
Frequency of test and inspection of pres- 
sure relief devices for pressure vessel and 
piping service is greatly dependent on the 
nature of the contents and operation of the 
system and only general recommendations 
can be given. Inspection frequency should 
be based on previous inspection history. If 
valves are found to be defective or damaged 
by system contents during inspection, inter- 
vals should be shortened until acceptable 
inspection results are obtained. Where test 
records and/or inspection history are not 
available, the following inspection and test 
frequencies are suggested. 



53 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



Service 


Inspection Frequency 


Steam 


Annual 


Air and Clean Dry 
Gases 


Every three years 


Pressure relief valves 
in combination with 
rupture disks 


Every five years 


Propane, Refrigerant 


Every five years 


All Others 


Per inspection history 



Establishment of Inspection and Test Inter- 
vals 

Where a recommended test frequency is 
not listed, the valve user and Inspector must 
determine and agree on a suitable interval 
for inspection and test. Some items to be 
considered in making this determination 
are: 

1) Jurisdictional requirements; 

2) Records of test data and inspections 
from similar processes and similar de- 
vices in operation at that facility; 

3) Recommendations from the device 
manufacturer. In particular, when the 
valve includes a non-metallic part such 
as a diaphragm, periodic replacement 
of those parts may be specified; 

4) Operating history of the system. Sys- 
tems with frequent upsets where a valve 
has actuated require more frequent 
inspection; 

5) Results of visual inspection of the de- 
vice and installation conditions. Signs 
of valve leakage, corrosion or damaged 
parts all indicate more frequent opera- 
tional inspections; 

6) Installation of a valve in a system with 
a common discharge header. Valves 
discharging into a common collection 
pipe may be affected by the discharge 
of other valves by the corrosion of parts 



in the outlet portion of the valve or the 
buildup of products discharged from 
those valves; 

7) Ability to coordinate with planned 
system shutdowns. The shutdown of 
a system for other maintenance or in- 
spection activities is an ideal time for 
the operational inspection and test of 
a pressure relief valve; 

8) Critical nature of the system. Systems 
that are critical to plant operation or 
where the effects of the discharge of 
fluids from the system are particularly 
detrimental due to fire hazard, environ- 
mental damage, or toxicity concerns 
all call for more frequent inspection 
intervals to ensure devices are operat- 
ing properly; 

9) Where the effects of corrosion, block- 
age by system fluid, or ability of the 
valve to operate under given service 
conditions are unknown (such as in 
a new process or installation), a rela- 
tively short inspection interval, not to 
exceed one year or the first planned 
shutdown, whichever is shorter, shall 
be established. At that time the device 
shall be visually inspected and tested. If 
unacceptable test results are obtained, 
the inspection interval shall be reduced 
by 50% until suitable results are ob- 
tained. 

h) Establishment of Service Intervals 

1) The above intervals are guidelines for 
periodic inspection and testing. Typi- 
cally if there are no adverse findings, a 
pressure relief valve would be placed 
back in service until the next inspec- 
tion. Any unacceptable conditions 
that are found by the inspection shall 
be corrected immediately by repair or 
replacement of the device. Many us- 
ers will maintain spare pressure relief 
devices so the process or system is not 
affected by excessive downtime. 



54 



A07 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



2) Pressure relief valves are mechanical 
devices that require periodic preven- 
tive maintenance even though external 
inspection and test results indicate ac- 
ceptable performance. There may be 
wear on internal parts, galling between 
sliding surfaces or internal corrosion, 
and fouling which will not be evident 
from an external inspection or test. 
Periodic re-establishment of seating sur- 
faces and the replacement of soft goods 
such as o-rings and diaphragms are also 
well advised preventive maintenance 
activities that can prevent future prob- 
lems. If the valve is serviced, a complete 
disassembly, internal inspection, and 
repair as necessary, such that the valve's 
condition and performance are restored 
to a like new condition, should be done 
by an organization accredited by the 
National Board. 

3) Service records with test results and 
findings should be maintained for all 
overpressure protection devices. A 
service interval of no more than three 
inspection intervals or ten years, which- 
ever is less, is recommended to main- 
tain device condition. Results of the 
internal inspection and maintenance 
findings can then be used to establish 
future service intervals. 



55 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



5S 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE * PART 2 — INSPECTION 



5.3.2 REPLACEMENT OF STAMPED DATA FORM (NB-1 36) 

REPLACEMENT OF STAMPED DATA FORM 
in accordance with provisions of the National Board Inspection Code 



Submitted to 



Submitted by 



(name of Jurisdiction) 



(name of owner) 



(address) 



(address) 



(telephone no.) 



(telephone n.o.j 



1. Manufactured by _ 

2. Manufactured for . 



(name and address) 



(name and address) 

3. Location of installation 



4. Date installed 

5. Previously installed at 

6. Manufacturer's Data Report attached LJ No LJ Yes 

7. Item registered with National Board D No d Yes, NB Number 

8. Item identification Year built 

Type Dimensions 

Mfg. serial no Jurisdiction no 

MAWP psi Safety relief valve set at psi 

9. Complete the reverse side of this report with a true facsimile of the legible portion 
of the nameplate. 

10. If nameplate is lost or illegible, documentation shall be attached identifying the object to the 
Manufacturer's Data Report referenced on this form. 



11. I request authorization to replace the stamped data and /or nameplate on the above described 
pressure-retaining item in accordance with the rules of the National Board Inspection Code (NBIC). 

Owner or User's name 



Signature . 
Title 



Date . 



12. Authorization is granted to replace the stamped data or to replace the nameplate of the above 
described pressure-retaining item. 



Signature . 



. Date . 



(chief inspector or authorized representative) 



Jurisdiction . 



This form may be obtained from The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 1 055 Crupper Ave., Columbus, OH 43229 

B9 



NB-136Rev.6 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION GDDE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 

The following is a true facsimile of the legible portion of the item's nameplate. Please print. Where 
possible, also attach a rubbing of the nameplate. 



I certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief, the statements in this report are correct, and 
that the replacement information, data, and identification numbers are correct and in accordance 
with provisions of the National Board Inspection Code. Attached is a facsimile or rubbing of the 
stamping or nameplate. 

Name of Owner or User _____ 

Signature Date 

(authorized representative) 

Witnessed by ____ Employer 

(name of inspector) r J 

Signature Date NB Commission 

(inspector) 

(Back) 



9D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



5.3.6 PRESSURE VESSELS REPORT OF INSPECTION FORM (NB-7) 

FORM NB-7 PRESSURE VESSELS 

REPORT OF INSPECTION 

Standard Form for Jurisdictions Operating Under the ASME Code 



DATE INSPECTED 
MO | DAY I YEAR 



CERT EXP DATE 

MO | YEAH 



CERTIFICATE POSTED 
□ Yes □!*> 



JURISDICTION NUMBER 



NAT'LBDNO.D OTHER NO. □ 



NATURE OF BUSINESS 



KIND OF 
INSPECTION 
dint DExt 



CERTIFICATE 
INSPECTION 
□ Yes DNo 



OWNER'S STREET ADDRESS 



OWNER'S CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



USERS NAME - OBJECT LOCATION 



SPECIFIC LOCATION IN PLANT 



OBJECT LOCATION - COUNTY 



USERS STREET ADDRESS 



TYPE 

□ AIR TANK 



□ WATER TANK 



□ OTHER 



YEAR 
BUILT 



MANUFACTURER 



USE 

□ STORAGE □ PROCESS 



□ HEAT EXCHANGE QOTHER 



PRESSURE GAGE TESTED 
□ Yes DNo 



PRESSURE ALLOWED 
THIS INSPECTION 



PREVIOUS INSPECTION _ 



SAFETY RELIEF VALVES 
SET AT 



EXPLAIN IF PRESSURE CHANGED 



TOTAL CAPACITY 



IS CONDITION OF OBJECT SUCH THAT A CERTIFICATE MAY BE ISSUED? 
□ YES □ NO (IF NO, EXPLAIN FULLY UNDER CONDITIONS) 



HYDRO TEST 
□ YES 



_PSI DATE_ 



. □ NO 



CONDITIONS: 

With respect to the internal surface, describe and state location of any scale, oil, or other deposits. Give location and extent of any corrosion and state whether active or inactive. State location and extent of any 
erosion, grooving, bulging, warping, cracking, or similar condition. Report on any defective rivits, bowed, loose or broken stays. State condition of all tubes, tube ends, coils, nipples, etc. Describe any adverse 
conditions with respect to pressure gage, water column, gage glass, gage cocks, safety valves, etc. Report condition of setting, linings, baffles, supports, etc. Describe any major changes or repairs made since 
last inspection. 



REQUIREMENTS: (LIST CODE VIOLATIONS) 



10 



NAME AND TITLE OF PERSON TO WHOM REQUIREMENTS WERE EXPLAINED: 



I HEREBY CERTIFY THIS IS A TRUE REPORT OF MY INSPECTION 



SIGNATURE OF INSPECTOR 



IDENTNO. 



EMPLOYED BY 



This form may be obtained from The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 1 055 Crupper Ave., Columbus, OH 43229 

97 



NB-7 Rev. 2 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



5.3. 6-a 



PRESSURE VESSEL 




REPORT OF INSPECTION — (EXTENSION SHEET) 




DATE INSPECTED 


OWNER-USER 


LOCATION 


OWNER'S 
NO. 


JURISDICTION 
NO. 


NB 
ASMEOR 
STD. NO 


INT 


EXT 


*CERT- 
NO.OF 
YEARS 


TYPE OF OBJECT 


YEAR 
BUILT 


MADE BY 


ALLOW. 
PRESS. 


TEMP. 
OF 


R.V.S.V. 
SETTING 











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































In this column show the number ot years tor which the inspector authorizes the issuance ot the certificate. 

(Back) 
9B 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 5.3.7 REPORT OF FITNESS FOR SERVICE ASSESSMENT FORM (NB-403) 



The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors 

REPORT OF FITNESS FOR SERVICE ASSESSMENT 



F.F.S. Assessment No. 



^ 



1 . Equipment Owner Information: (*) 



(Name) 



(Address) 



2. FFS Assessment Performed By 



■®- 



(Name of Organization or Individual) 



(Address) 



3 . Location of Equipment Installation: LJL) 

^ — (Name of 



(Name of Company) 



(Address) 

4. Equipment or Component Information: (°) 



& 



(Jurisdiction) 



(MFG SR#, NB#, Jurisdiction*, Year Built, Other) 



(Equipment Material Specification, Grade) 



(Design & Operating Pressures, Design &, Operating Temperatures) 

5. Original Code of Construction: 



tion: (Jj 



(Name) (Section) (Division) (Edition) (Addendum) 



FITNESS FOR SERVICE STANDARD USED FOR ASSESSMENT 



6. Flaw Type(s) and/or Damage Mechanisms considered in FFS Assessment: f 9 J 



7. FFS Assessment Procedures (attach FFS Assessment reference documents with details if applicable): PO) 



Inspection Results 



-©- 



(Type of NDE Performed, Pressure Tests, Thickness Measurements, etc.) 



Failure Modes Identified: 



(Crack-Like Flaws, Pitting, Bulges/Blisters, General or Localized Corrosion, etc.) 



99 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A07 



8. FFS Assessments Results / Recommendations (Check boxes that apply and provide details): Qy 
Q^y Continued Operation fi$U Repair ^Q Replace fifn Continue Operation Until: ^ 



Details (if applicable) . 



9. Owners Inspection Intervals (Based on Assessment): O^J 

10. Inservice Monitoring Methods and Intervals: (M) 

11. Operating Limitations (if applicable): ffi) 



(Months/Years) 



(Methods, MonthsA'ears) 



r 22 ^ 



— certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief 

the statements intKis report are correct and that the information, data, and identification numbers are 
correct and in accordance with provisions of the National Board Inspection Code, Part 2, 4.4. Applicable 
documentation is attached to support this assessment. 



Owner Name . 



(Printed) 



Signature . 



(Owner) 



Date. 



Organization Performing Assessment (^j 
Signature LJZj 



(Name) 



(Responsible Engineer) 



Date. 



Verified By . 



(Inspector, Printed) 



. Employer ( ^J 



Signature . 



(Inspector) 



(Accredited Inspection Agency) 

Date (32 s 



NB Commission # 



(National Board & 
Jurisdiction Number) 



This form may be obtained Irom The National Board ol Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. 1055 Crupper Ave , Columbus, OH 43229 

(Back) 



1 DD 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



FIGURE S1.1-b 

Arrangement of Firebox Sheets (Stayboits Deleted for Clarity) 



Dome Course 



Crown Sheet 




Throat Sheet 



Inside Throat Sheet 




o a u 
' a a 
a o 

la o> d; { %% 




S1.3 FEDERAL RAILROAD 

ADMINISTRATION (FRA) 



S1.4 LOCOMOTIVE FIRETUBE 

BOILER INSPECTION 



The FRA rules for steam locomotive boilers 
are published in the Code of Federal Regula- S1.4.1 
tions (CFR) 49CFR Part 230, dated November 
1 7,1 999.1 . 1 All locomotives under FRA Juris- a) 
diction are documented on FRA Form 4 as 
defined in 49CFR Part 230. This document is 
the formal documentation of the steam loco- 
motive boiler and is required to be completed b) 
prior to the boiler being placed in service. This 
document shall be used as the data report for 
the boiler, applicable to all repairs and altera- 
tions performed. National Board "R" Certificate c) 
Holders shall document their repairs and/or 
alterations on National Board Forms R-1 or 
R-2. These reports shall be distributed to the 
owner-user of the boiler, who is required to 
incorporate them into the FRA Form 1 9, which 
becomes an attachment to the FRA Form 4. The 
design margin for all such repairs or alterations 
shall not be less than four based on ultimate 
tensile strength of the material. 



INSPECTION METHODS 



1 Steam locomotive inspection and maintenance standards, 
which is now codified at 49CFR Part 230, may be obtained at 
the FRA Web site. The final rule at www.fra.dot.gov/downloads/ 
counsei/fr/slfr.pdf 



d) 



Plate thickness and depth of corrosion may 
be determined by use of the ultrasonic 
thickness testing process. 

Where access is possible, the depth of pit- 
ting may be determined by use of a depth 
micrometer or a pit gage. 

On stayed sections, the plate thickness 
readings should be taken on a grid not 
exceeding the maximum staybolt pitch at 
the center of each section of four stayboits. 
Additional readings may be taken close 
to each staybolt to determine if localized 
thinning has occurred. Particular attention 
should be given to the joint between the 
staybolt and the plate. 

On unstayed sections, the plate thickness 
readings should be taken on a grid not 
exceeding 12 inch (305 mm) centers. Ad- 
ditional readings should be taken if condi- 
tions warrant. 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



e) Cracks in plates may be located by the use 
of appropriate Nondestructive Examination 
(NDE) methods. 

f) Separation of plates at riveted seams may be 
detected by use of a feeler gage and mag- 
nifying glass or other applicable method. 

g) Varying the intensity of inspection lights 
may facilitate discovery of defects. Place- 
ment of the light to shine parallel to the 
surface is one method of detecting pits and 
surface irregularities. 

h) When inspecting internal stayed surfaces, 
placement of a light source within the 
stayed zone will aid the inspection. 

i) Broken staybolts may be detected by leak- 
age through telltale holes and by hammer 
testing. Both methods are most effective 
when the boiler is under hydrostatic pres- 
sure of at least 95% MAWP. If a hydrostatic 
test cannot be applied, the hammer test 
may be performed alone with the boiler 
drained. 

j) Visual inspection shall be performed as a 
supplement to all of the above. 



S1.4.2 



INSPECTION ZONES 



SI .4.2.1 RIVETED SEAMS AND RIVET 
HEADS 

Riveted seams and rivet heads shall be in- 
spected for: 

a) Grooving 

b) Corrosion 

c) Cracks 

d) Pitting 

e) Leakage 

f) Separation of the plates 



g) Excessive or deep caulking of the plate 
edges and rivet head 

h) Seal welding of the plate edges and rivet 
heads 

i) Rivet heads that have been built up by or 
covered over completely by welding 

j) Rivets replaced by patch bolts 

k) Defective components of the seam 

Notes: Broken rivet heads or cracked plates 
may result from sodium hydroxide cracking 
(caustic embitterment). 

Riveted longitudinal lap seams should be 
given careful examination, using NDE if 
necessary, because this type of construction 
is prone to cracking. 

When determining the extent of corrosion 
to rivet heads, it is important to know the 
rivet size and the type of rivet head used 
for the original construction. Corrosion can 
alter the appearance of these items and 
disguise the full extent of the damage. 

Fire cracks extending to the rivet holes in 
riveted lap seams of firebox sheets may be 
acceptable under 3.4.9. 

I) Rivet Head Wastage for Rivet Joint in Ten- A09 
sion Rivet head wastage for riveted joints 
in tension shall not exceed 0.250d. In Fig. 
S1 .4.2.1 I), h) shall be equal to or greater 
than 0.250d where: 

h= average height of rivet head on circum- 
ference of diameter d 
d= shank diameter of driven rivet 

Note: This calculation is independent of the 
type and style of the rivet head. 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



A09 FIGURE S1 .4.2.1 I) 




51 .4.2.2 WELDED AND RIVETED REPAIRS 

Welded and riveted repairs shall be inspected 
for: 

a) Correct application of welded patches or 
weld application 

b) Correct application of riveting 

c) Cracks 

d) Separation of the plates 

e) Dents or other mechanical damage 

f) Leakage 

51 .4.2.3 BOILER SHELL COURSE 

The boiler shell course shall be inspected for: 

a) Grooving or cuts 

b) Corrosion 



c) Cracks 

d) Pitting 

e) Separation of the plates 

f) Dents or other mechanical damage 

g) Leakage 

Note: An accurate inspection often cannot 
be performed until the interior has been 
cleaned since mud and scale make it dif- 
ficult to detect defects. 

S1 .4.2.4 DOME AND DOME LID 

The dome and dome lid shall be inspected for: 

a) Grooving 

b) Corrosion, especially at the interior section 
attached to the boiler course 

c) Cracks 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



d) Pitting 

e) Separation of plates 

f) Dents or other mechanical damage 

g) Leakage 

h) Stretched, bent, or corroded dome studs 

i) Damage to the steam dome cover sealing 
surfaces. 

Notes: Close inspection should be made to 
the interior section at the joint attached to 
the boiler course. 

If the dome studs are bent, a careful evalu- 
ation should be made of the lid for leakage 
and mechanical damage. 

51.4.2.5 MUDRING 

The mudring and mudring rivets shall be in- 
spected for: 

a) Mud and scale on the waterside 

b) Debris on the waterside 

c) Corrosion 

d) Grooving 

e) Cracks 

f) Separation of the firebox plates from the 
mudring 

g) Dents or other mechanical damage 
h) Leakage 

51 .4.2.6 FLUE SHEETS 

Flue sheets shall be inspected for: 

a) Grooving around flue holes, rivet seams 
and braces 



b) Pitting 

c) Fireside and waterside corrosion 

d) Fire cracks at riveted lap seams 

e) Cracks 

f) Bulges 

g) Leakage 

h) Excessive or deep caulking of the plate 
edges 

Note: Corrosion is common at the bottom 
section of the front flue sheet. Close inspec- 
tion of the joint between the front flue sheet 
and shell shall be made. 

51 .4.2.7 FLANGED SHEETS 

The flanged section of all flanged sheets shall 
be inspected for: 

a) Pitting 

b) Corrosion 

c) Cracks 

d) Grooving 

e) Scale and mud deposits 

f) Correct fit up and alignment of the flanged 
sheet to the adjacent sheets 

Notes: Corrosion is common at the bottom 
section of the front flue sheet. The flanges 
should have a smooth uniform curvature 
and should make a smooth transition to the 
flat sheets. 

51 .4.2.8 STAYED SHEETS 

Stayed sheet shall be examined for: 
a) Scale and mud deposits 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



b) Grooving around staybolt holes 

c) Deterioration of the joint between the stay- 
bolt and the sheet 

d) Grooving on the waterside section 

e) Pitting 

f) Fireside and waterside corrosion 

g) Overheating 

h) Fire cracks at riveted lap seams 

i) Cracks 

j) Bulges 

Notes: Close inspection for fireside corro- 
sion should be given to sections located 
behind refractory or grate bars. 

Close inspection should be made for groov- 
ing on waterside surfaces of the stayed 
sheets just above the mudring. 

Fire cracks extending to the rivet holes in 
riveted lap seam firebox sheets may be ac- 
ceptable under 3.4.9. 

S1 .4.2.9 STAYBOLTS 
Staybolts shall be inspected for: 

a) Cracks in or breakage of the body 

b) Erosion of the driven head from corrosion 
or combustion gases 

c) Staybolt head flush with or below the sur- 
face of the sheet 



Correct application of seal welding to stay- 
bolt heads 

Notes: An indicator of waterside corrosion 
on threaded staybolts is the lack of threads 
on the section of the staybolt body just 
above the sheet. 

Broken staybolts may be detected by leak- 
age through telltale holes and by hammer 
testing. Both methods are most effective 
when the boiler is under hydrostatic pres- 
sure of at least 95% MAVVP. If a hydrostatic 
test cannot be applied, the hammer test 
may be performed alone with the boiler 
drained. 

When a broken stay is found, the stays 
adjacent to it should be examined closely 
because these may have become over- 
stressed by addition of the load from the 
broken stay. 

A telltale hole plugged by installation of 
a nail or pin may indicate the staybolt is 
broken and requires replacement. 

The plugging of telltale holes by refractory 
to prevent build up of foreign matter in the 
telltale hole is permitted for locomotives 
operating under FRA Jurisdiction per 49 
CFR Section 230.41. 

One indication that a threaded staybolt 
leaks during service is when the head of it is 
found to have been re-driven repeatedly. 



Sl.4.2.10 FLEXIBLE STAYBOLTS AND 
SLEEVES 

Flexible staybolt sleeves and caps shall be 
inspected for: 



d) Plugging of telltale holes except as permit- a) Corrosion 
ted by 49 CFR Part 230.41 

b) Cracks 

e) Waterside corrosion 

c) Dents or other mechanical damage 

f) Staybolt heads that have been covered over 

by welding d) Leakage 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



e) Damaged threads or welds 

f) Scale and mud accumulations inside the 
sleeve that could restrict bolt movement 

g) Correct application of welding to welded 
sleeves and welded caps 

h) Seal welding of threaded sleeves or thread- 
ed caps 

Notes: An indicator of waterside corrosion 
on threaded staybolts is the lack of threads 
on the section of the staybolt body just 
above the sheet. 

Broken staybolts may be detected by leakage 
through telltale holes and by hammer test- 
ing. Both methods are most effective when 
the boiler is under hydrostatic pressure of at 
least 95% MAWP. If a hydrostatic test can 
not be applied, the hammer test may be 
performed alone with the boiler drained. 

On ball head flexible staybolts, one method 
of testing the stay for cracks or breakage is 
to strike the ball head using a pneumatic 
hammer or hand hammer. Another method 
is to twist the ball head using a long handle 
wrench. Access to the ball head is gained 
by removing the cap from the sleeve. 

When a broken stay is found, the stays 
adjacent to it should be examined closely 
because these may have become over- 
stressed by addition of the load from the 
broken stay. 

A telltale hole plugged by installation of 
a nail or pin may indicate the staybolt is 
broken and requires replacement. 

The plugging of telltale holes by refractory 
to prevent build up of foreign matter in the 
telltale hole is permitted for locomotives 
operating under FRA Jurisdiction per 49 
CFR Section 230.41. 

One indication that a threaded staybolt 
leaks during service is when the head of it is 
found to have been re-driven repeatedly. 



S1.4.2.11 GIRDER STAY AND CROWN 
BARS 

Girder stays, crown bars, and their associated 
fasteners including stays, rivets, pins, washers, 
nuts, thimbles, spacers, and the adjacent sec- 
tions of the firebox plates shall be inspected 

for: 

a) Corrosion 

b) Cracks 

c) Mud and scale 

d) Correct fit and alignment of the girder stay 
or crown bar to the firebox plate surface, 
including flanged sections 

e) Correct fit and alignment of the thimbles, 
spacers, and pins to the girder stay or crown 
bar, and the firebox plates 

f) Dents or other mechanical damage 

g) Stays or rivets built up by or covered over 
completely by welding 

h) Leakage from the stay heads 

i) Seal welding of rivet heads 

j) Correct application of retainers to all nuts 
and fasteners 

k) Missing fasteners, nuts or retainers 

Notes: An accurate inspection often cannot 
be performed until the girder stay or crown 
bar has been cleaned since mud and scale 
will make it difficult to detect defects. 

When a broken stay is found, the stays 
adjacent to it should be examined closely 
because these may have become over- 
stressed by addition of the load from the 
broken stay. 



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NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



51 .4.2.1 2 SUNG STAYS 

Sling stays and thei r associated fasteners includ- 
ing the pins, retainers, washers, nuts, and their 
associated attachment at eyes, girder stays, or 
crown stays shall be inspected for: 

a) Corrosion 

b) Cracks 

c) Dents, wear or other mechanical damage 

d) Mud and scale 

e) Wear to the pin hole or expansion slot of 
the sling stay and mating component 

f) Correct application of retainers to the pins 

g) Missing fasteners, nuts, or retainers 

h) Any of the above that would restrict move- 
ment of the sling stays 

Notes: An accurate inspection often cannot 
be performed until the sling stay has been 
cleaned since mud and scale will make it 
difficult to detect defects. 

When a broken or loose stay is found, the 
stays adjacent to it should be examined 
closely because these may have become 
overstressed by addition of the load from 
defective stay. 

Special attention should be given to the row 
of sling stays adjacent to the flue sheet to 
ensure that these stays are not loose. 

51 .4.2.1 3 CROWN STAYS AND 
EXPANSION STAYS 

Crown stays and expansion stays shall be in- 
spected for: 

a) Cracks in or breakage of the body 

b) Dents, wear, or other mechanical damage 



c) Erosion of the driven head from corrosion 
or combustion gases 

d) Stay head flush with or below the surface 
of the sheet 

e) Plugging of telltale holes, except as permit- 
ted by 49 CFR Part 230.41 

f) Waterside corrosion 

g) Stay heads that have been covered over by 
welding 

h) Correct application of seal welding to stay 
heads 

i) Correct application of retainers to the 
pins 

j) Missing fasteners, nuts, or retainers 

k) Correct fit and alignment of the stay as- 
sembly 

I) Any of the above that would restrict move- 
ment of the stay 

Notes: An indicator of waterside corrosion 
on threaded stays is the lack of threads on 
the section of the stay body just above the 
sheet. 

Broken stays may be detected by leakage 
through telltale-holes and by hammer test- 
ing. Both methods are most effective when 
the boiler is under hydrostatic pressure of at 
least 95% MAWP. If a hydrostatic test can 
not be applied, the hammer test may be 
performed alone with the boiler drained. 

When a broken stay is found, the stays ad- 
jacent to it should be examined closely be- 
cause these may have become overstressed 
by addition of the load from broken stay. 

A telltale hole plugged by installation of a 
nail or pin may indicate the stay is broken 
and requires replacement. 



i i i 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



The plugging of telltale holes by refractory 
to prevent build up of foreign matter in the 
telltale hole is permitted for locomotives 
operating under FRA Jurisdiction per 49 
CFR Part 230.41. 

One indication that a threaded stay leaks 
during service is when the head of it is 
found to have been re-driven repeatedly. 

Special attention should be given to the row 
of stays adjacent to the flue sheet to ensure 
that these stays are not loose. 



S1.4.2.14 DIAGONAL AND GUSSET 
BRACES 

Diagonal and gusset braces, and their attach- 
ments, shall be inspected for: 

a) Looseness 

b) Corrosion 

c) Cracks 

d) Welded repairs 

e) Missing pins or pin retainers 

f) Defective rivets 

g) Scale and mud deposits 

Notes: Diagonal and gusset braces should 
be under tension. 

The brace pins should fit the brace clevis 
and eye securely and be retained from 
coming out by some type of fixed or keyed 
retainer. 

Diagonal braces having loop-type ends 
should be given close inspection for cracks 
and corrosion. The loop-type end is formed 
by the brace body being split, looped 
around, and forged to the body. Some ver- 
sions of it have a low margin of material to 
provide the required strength. 



51.4.2.15 FLUES 

All boiler and super heater flues shall be in- 
spected for: 

a) Fire cracks 

b) Pitting 

c) Corrosion 

d) Erosion 

e) Obstructions in the flue interior 

f) Mud or scale buildup on the waterside 

g) Erosion or cracking of the flue ends, flue 
beads and/or seal welds 

h) Leakage 

i) Number of circumferential welded joints 
on flues repaired by re-ending 

j) Correct application including expanding/ 
rolling and belling, beading, or seal weld- 
ing of the flue end 

Notes: Erosion (cinder cutting) generally 
occurs to the firebox end of the flue. 

Galvanic corrosion of the flue in the flue 
sheet may occur if flues are installed with 
copper ferrules. 

51 .4.2.1 6 SUPERHEATER UNITS AND 
HEADER 

Superheater units and the superheater header 
shall be inspected for: 

a) Pitting 

b) Cracks 

c) Erosion 

d) Corrosion 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



e) Bulges 

f) Leakage 

g) Missing shields 

h) Missing or broken bands or supports on the 
superheater units 

i) Missing, damaged, or welded attachment 
bolts, nuts, clamps, studs, and washers 

j) Adequate structural bracing and support of 
the superheater header 

S1.4.2.17 ARCH TUBES, WATER BAR 

TUBES AND CIRCULATORS 

Arch tubes, water bar tubes, and circulators 
shall be inspected for: 

a) Erosion 

b) Corrosion 

c) Fire cracks 

d) Pitting 

e) Cracking of tube ends 

f) Overheating and blistering 

g) Bulges 

h) Mud and scale buildup in the waterside 

i) Welded repairs 

j) Correct application including expanding/ 
rolling and belling, beading, or seal weld- 
ing of the tube end 

Note: Weld buildup or welded patches are 
not permitted on arch tubes and water bar 
tubes of locomotives operating under FRA 
Jurisdiction per 49 CFR Section 230.61 . The 
defective tubes must be replaced. 



51.4.2.18 THERMIC SIPHONS 
Thermic siphons shall be inspected for: 

a) Erosion 

b) Corrosion 

c) Fire cracks 

d) Pitting 

e) Cracking of the siphon neck 

f) Overheating and blistering 

g) Bulges 

h) Mud and scale blockage in the waterside 

i) Broken or damaged staybolts 

Note: Refer to inspection zones — Stay- 
bolts, Stayed Sheets, and Flanged Sheets 
for additional inspection procedures. 

51 .4.2.19 FIREBOX REFRACTORY 

Firebox refractory shall be inspected to ensure 
it is properly applied and maintained to prevent 
undesired flame impingement on the firebox 
sheets. 

51. 4.2.20 DRY PIPE 

The dry pipe of boilers having dome mounted 
(internal) throttle valves shall be inspected for: 

a) Erosion 

b) Corrosion 

c) Cracks 

d) Adequate structural bracing, support, and 
attachment to the boiler and dome 

e) Loose, bent or damaged rivets, nuts, bolts, 
and studs 



1 1 3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Note: A steam leak into the dry pipe of a 
dome mounted (internal) throttle valve will 
send an unregulated flow of steam to the 
cylinders. 



S1 .4.2.21 THROTTLE AND THROTTLE 
VALVE 

The throttle handle and its mechanism shall be 
inspected for: 

a) Proper operation 

b) Lost motion or looseness 

c) Adequate structural bracing, support and at- 
tachment to the boiler, dome, and firebox 

d) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 

Note: The throttle handle shall be equipped 
with some type of locking mechanism to 
prevent the throttle from being opened by 
the steam pressure. 

SI .4.2.22 SCREW-TYPE WASHOUT PLUGS, 
HOLES, AND SLEEVES 

Screw-type washout plugs, holes, and sleeves, 
especially those having square or Acme thread, 
shall be inspected for: 

a) Damaged or cracked threads on the plug, 
hole, or sleeve 

b) Corrosion 

c) Cracks 

d) Distortion 

e) Looseness 

f) Leakage 

g) Steam cuts to threads and sealing surfaces 
h) Twisting of the plug head or body 



Note: When washout plugs are threaded 
with USF or NPT thread, the minimum 
number of threads in good condition in 
the threaded hole shall be adequate for the 
service. 



S1 .4.2.23 HANDHOLE WASHOUT DOORS 

Handhole washout doors and their mating 
surfaces shall be inspected for: 

a) Damaged or cracked threads on the door 
studs 

b) Corrosion of door sealing surfaces and 
studs 

c) Cracks 

d) Stretching or bending of the door stud or 
handhole door 

e) Looseness 

f) Leakage and steam cuts 

g) Damage to the clamp 

h) Damage to the clamp seating surface on 
the sheet 

i) Confirmation that the handhole door makes 
unbroken line contact along the entire cir- 
cumference of the sheet at the opening 

j) Material of the handhole door gaskets 

k) Correct repairs 

Notes: Confirmation that the handhole 
door has unbroken line contact against 
sheet can be determined by performing a 
"blue check." This requires applying a light 
coating of "contact blue" or "Prussian Blue" 
to the handhole door sealing surfaces. The 
door then is held against the sheet and re- 
moved. The transfer of the bluing will show 
the areas that contact the sheet surfaces. 



1 1 4 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



The material of the handhole door gaskets 
should be reviewed with the operator to 
confirm that it meets the pressure and tem- 
perature requirements of the boiler. 



51 .4.2.24 THREADED AND WELDED 
ATTACHMENT STUDS 

Threaded and welded attachment studs shall 
be inspected for: 

a) Corrosion, especially at the sheet 

b) Cracks 

c) Damaged threads 

d) Stretching or bending 

e) Looseness 

f) Leakage 

51 .4.2.25 FUSIBLE PLUGS 
Fusible plugs shall be inspected for: 

a) Corrosion 

b) Scale buildup on the waterside 

c) Damage 

d) Tampering 

e) Leakage from the threads 

f) Height of the plug above waterside of 
crown sheet 

g) Evidence of melting or overheating 
h) Proper marking 



§1 .4.2.26 WATER GLASS, WATER 

COLUMN, AND GAGE COCKS 

The water glass, water column, and gage 
cock boiler connections and piping shall be 
inspected for: 



a) Mud and scale blockage 

b) Kinks or sharp, restricted or flattened bends 
in the piping 

c) Sags in the piping horizontal runs 

d) Condition of tubular or reflex water glass 

e) Correct type and material of piping and 
fittings 

f) Correct location, size, and installation of 
the connections to the sheets 

g) Correct installation of the safety shield (if 
used) 

h) Correct installation of the viewing light (if 
used) 

i) Correct installation of the test and drain 
valves 

j) Proper installation 

k) Proper bracing to prevent vibration 

I) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 



S1 .4.2.27 STEAM PRESSURE GAGE 

The steam pressure gage, gage cock boiler con- 
nections, and piping shall be inspected for: 

a) Kinks or sharp, restricted, or flattened bends 
in the piping 

b) Correct installation of the shutoff valve and 
siphon 

c) Proper size, type, and material of piping 
and fittings 

d) Proper installation 

e) Proper lighting for viewing 



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NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



f) Proper bracing to prevent vibration 

g) Calibration 

S1 .4.2.28 BOSLER FITTINGS AND PIPING 

The boiler fittings and associated piping shall 
be inspected for: 

a) Cracks 

b) Corrosion 

c) Pitting 

d) Leakage 

e) Looseness 

f) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 

g) Adequate structural bracing, support, at- 
tachment, and provision for expansion 

h) Proper size, type, and material 

SI .4.2.29 BOILER ATTACHMENT 
BRACKETS 

The boiler attachment brackets and associated 
components and fasteners used to secure the 
boiler to the frame shall be inspected for: 

a) Correct installation 

b) Damaged or missing components 

c) Looseness 

d) Leakage 

e) Loose, bent or damaged rivets, nuts, bolts 
and studs 

f) Defective rivets 

g) Provision for expansion 



51.4.2.30 FIRE DOOR 

The fire door, the locking mechanism, and the 
operating mechanism shall be inspected for: 

a) Safe and suitable operation 

b) Cracked, damaged, or burned parts 

c) Loose, damaged or bent rivets, nuts, bolts, 
and studs 

Note: The locking mechanism should be 
inspected for correct operation to confirm 
it will not allow the door to open in the 
event the firebox becomes pressurized. 

51.4.2.31 GRATES AND GRATE 
OPERATING MECHANISM 

The grates shall be inspected for: 

a) Cracked, damaged, burned, or missing seg- 
ments 

b) The grate operating mechanism of rocking 
grates shall be checked for: 

1 ) Uniform operation of all segments 

2) Corrosion 

3) Worn or cracked linkage 

4) Correct fit of the shaker bar on the link- 
age 

5) Missing pins or pin retainers 

6) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 



S1 .4.2.32 SMOKEBOX 

The smokebox shall be inspected for: 

a) Erosion 

b) Corrosion 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



c) Leakage 

d) Holes 

e) Looseness 

f) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 

51 .4.2.33 SMOKEBOX STEAM PIPES 

The smokebox steam pipes shall be inspected 
for: 

a) Erosion 

b) Corrosion 

c) Pitting 

d) Leakage 

e) Looseness 

f) Loose, bent or damaged nuts, bolts, and 
studs 

Note: Pitting from the casting process may 
be evident on cast thick wall steam pipes, 
but may not constitute a defect. 

51 .4.2.34 ASH PAN AND FIRE PAN 

The ash pan or fire pan shall be inspected for: 

a) Corrosion 

b) Holes 

c) Looseness 

d) Loose or damaged rivets, nuts, bolts, and 
studs 

e) Secure attachment to the frame or firebox 

f) Proper operation of the slides, clean out 
doors, dumping mechanism, and damp- 
ers 



g) Proper sealing of the slides, clean out doors, 
and dampers 



S1 .4.3 METHOD OF CHECKING 

HEIGHT OF WATER GAGE 
GLASS 

The height of the bottom gage cock and water 
glass or water column above the highest sec- 
tion of the crown sheet should be checked to 
confirm it meets the height requirements for 
the service intended and those of the regula- 
tory agency. It is especially important this be A09 
checked if the water glass location or piping 
was changed, or if a new crown sheet or com- 
plete firebox is installed. 

S1 .4.3.1 WATER HEIGHT MEASURE 
MENT METHOD 

The following method is intended for use where 
it is possible to enter the boiler shell interior to 
measure the water level at the highest section 
of the crown sheet. (See Figure S1 .4.3-a) 

1 . Level the locomotive in the longitudinal and 
transverse planes so that it is in the position 
used for normal operation. 

2. Place a measurement gage or ruler on the 
longitudinal centerline of the highest sec- 
tion of the crown sheet. The measurement 
gage or ruler must be placed vertical and 
tangent to the highest section of the crown 
sheet. 

3. Fill the boiler with water until water exits 
the lowest gage cock and/or is just visible 
at the bottom of the water glass or water 
column. 

4. Measure the height of water over the crown 
sheet using the ruler or gage. 

5 Record the height reading and compare it 
to the required height. Repeat Steps 3 to 5 
and compare the readings of the first and 
second tests. 



1 1 v 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE " PART Z 



INSPECTION 



S1 .4.3.1 FLEXIBLE SPIRIT LEVEL 

METHOD 

The following method is intended for use where 
it is difficult to enter the boiler shell interior to 
measure the water level. The method is based 
on use of a flexible spirit level made from flex- 
ible rubber hose and clear plastic tubing. The 
measurements are taken from the fireside of 
the crown sheet. 

1 . The flexible spirit hose is made from a suit- 
able length of flexible rubber tubing, such 
as garden hose, with a minimum internal 
diameter of 5/8". The length must be long 
enough to extend from the front of the fire- 
box to the back head without kinks or sharp 
bends. At each end of the hose fasten an 8" 
long piece of clear plastic tube using hose 
clamps. The upper end of each piece of tub- 
ing must have four 1 /8" deep x 1 /8" wide air 
openings (slots) cut into it in order to allow 
the air to be vented out when held against 
the crown sheet. (See Figure S1 .4.3-b) 

2. Fill the hose with water and bring the 
clear plastic tubes side by side vertically to 

A09 FIGURE S1.4.3-a 



observe the water level. If the level is not 
the same, there is an air bubble or other 
obstruction in the hose. Repair it and retest 
the water level before proceeding. 

3. Level the locomotive in the longitudinal and 
transverse planes so that it is in the position 
used for normal operation. A09 

4. Locate the approximate longitudinal cen- 
terline of the fireside of the crown sheet 
and the highest section of the crown sheet 
using a ruler and chalk. 

5. Place one end of the hose against the ap- 
proximate center of crown sheet at the • 
highest point with the plastic tube held 
vertically. 

6. Place the other end of the hose and tube 
against the back head exterior vertical 
centerline and hold vertically in a position 
slightly lower than the crown sheet. 

7. Slowly raise the end of the hose held against 
the back head until water is discharged 
from the tube held against the crown sheet. 
Hold both tubes in position until the water 



Water Hei$it Meastwement Method 



Place measurement gauge or cuter on 
longitudinal centerline of highest 
" section of the crown sheet 



Water level at lowest reading of Water 
Glass, G*ge Cock or Water Column 



tertlefhigbtlt 

pamtafcwmi 




-WntitiglifmmtH 

lecateBotctmtling 
to requirement* 



1 1 B 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



9. 



stops flowing. At this point the level of 
water in the tube held at the back head will 
show the height of the bottom side of the 
crown sheet. Mark this water level position 
on the back head. 

Repeat the measuring procedure several 
times, each time moving the tube held 
against the crown sheet laterally to another 
position to confirm the highest location of 
the crown sheet has been located. Mark 
the level position of each measurement on 
the back head. 

Above the line on the back head obtained 
by the spirit level measurement make a 
second line of the same curvature but 
higher by a height equal to the crown sheet 
thickness plus the 1/8" deep slots cut into 
the tubing. This second line represents the 
top (waterside) of the crown sheet at the 
highest point. 



] 0. Use the second line as the reference point 
for measurements to determine whether 
the water glasses and/or water column are 
located at the required height above the 
crown sheet. To simplify taking the mea- 
surements the second line can be extended 
across the back head by use of a long ruler 
and precision spirit level. 

S1 .5 GUIDELINES FOR STEAM 

LOCOMOTIVE STORAGE 

The steam locomotive guidelines published 
herein list the general recommendations for 
storage of locomotive boilers and locomotives. 
The exact procedures used by the owner/op- 
erator must be reviewed by the railroad me- 
chanical officers/engineers and be based on the 
conditions and facilities at the railroad shop or 
storage facility. 



A09 FIGURE S1.4.3-b 



Flexible Spirit Level Method 



'Gtofcmmi 
•Ituttrnglifmuttt 





^-4^ 



Cut four W inch deep x 1/8" wide 
air openings (skits) in top of tube 



5/8" ID. Minimi™ 



1 1 9 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



S1.5.1 STORAGE METHODS 

a) The methods for preparing a steam locomo- 
tive for storage depend upon several factors, 
including: 

1 ) the anticipated length of time the loco- 
motive will be stored; 

2) whether storage will be indoors or out- 
doors; 

3) anticipated weather conditions during 
the storage period; 

4) the availability of climate-controlled 
storage; 

5) type of fuel used; and 



d) Locomotive boilers may be stored using the 
"wet method" or the "dry method." 

e) Before any method of storage, the boiler 
must be thoroughly washed out with mud 
and scale removed from the mudring, 
crownsheet, bottom of the barrel, and the 
top of the firing door. 



SI .5.2 WET STORAGE METHOD 

a) When utilizing the "wet storage method" 
the boiler is completely filled with treated 
water to exclude air. 



Note: This method cannot be used if the 
locomotive is exposed to freezing weather 
during storage. 

b) Chemicals may be added to the storage 
water to further inhibit corrosion. How- 
ever, depending on the chemical used, the 
treated water may have to be disposed of as 
a hazardous waste to prevent chemical con- 
tamination of the surrounding property. 

c) The procedure applies only to the sections 
of the boiler that contain water. The firebox 
interior, cylinders, piping, and auxiliary 
equipment of the locomotive still require 
draining, preservation, and dry storage. 



SI .5.3 DRY STORAGE METHOD 



6) equipment available at the storage site. a) 

b) Indoor storage can be categorized into 
two types: indoor with climate control and 
indoor without climate control. 

c) Outdoor storage can also be categorized 
into two types: outdoors during a warm 
time of year or in a geographic location 
where it can reasonably be expected to 
be above freezing during storage, and 
outdoors during a time period or in a geo- 
graphic location where it can be expected 
that freezing temperatures will occur during 
storage. 



b) 



When utilizing the "dry storage method" 
the boiler is completely emptied of water, 
dried out, and allowed to stand empty. 
Several variations of the "dry method" may 
be used. These include but are not limited 
to: 

1) air tight storage with moisture absor- 
bent placed in trays in the boiler; 

2) air tight storage with the boiler filled 
with inert gas to exclude oxygen; and 

3) open air storage with the mudring 
washout plugs removed to enable air 
circulation for evaporation of formed 
moisture. 

Each variation has positive and negative 
points that must be taken into account before 
use. If the boiler is filled with inert gas such 
as nitrogen, care must be taken because this 
method can result in asphyxiation of person- 
nel if the gas escapes the boiler through a 
leaking valve or washout plug and enters a 
pit, sump, or enclosed room. In addition, the 
boiler must be completely vented to remove 
gas, then tested and declared gas-free before 
personnel may enter. 



1 2D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE ' PART 2 



INSPECTION 



c) Although the use of dry storage with several 
washout plugs removed for air circulation is 
the most common method, there are some 
potential drawbacks. The boiler interior may 
be subject to moisture forming from con- 
densation created from humidity changes 
in the ambient air. Small animals may take 
up residence inside if screens are not used 
to cover handholes and washouts. 

d) Before storage, the boi ler must be thorough- 
ly washed out with mud and scale removed 
from the mudring, crownsheet, bottom of 
the barrel, and top of the firing door. Any 
mud or loose scale left in the boiler will 
retain moisture leading to corrosion. After 
washing, water must be removed and the 
boiler dried before storage. A portable gas 
or electric heater placed in the firebox to 
aid evaporation and drying along with a 
vacuum used to siphon water out via the 
lower washout plugs is recommended. 

Note: Use of the common railroad drying 
out procedure of building a small wood fire 
in the firebox is not recommended because 
of the danger of overheating the firebox 
sheets. 

e) The typical railroad dry storage method re- 
quired blow down of the boiler until empty 
while steam pressure registered on the gage 
and removal of the washout plugs while 
the shell plates were hot and there was 
no steam pressure. This allowed the heat 
remaining in the boiler plates to evaporate 
remaining water in the boiler. However, this 
method may result in staybolt damage from 
temperature change and requires extreme 
care, if used. 

f) Oil should not be applied to the interior 
surfaces of the boiler because it is difficult 
to remove. Further, the oil must be removed 
before steaming or it will form scale and 
contribute to foaming. 



S1.5.4 RECOMMENDED GENERAL 

PRESERVATION PROCEDURES 

a) When the locomotive is under steam, in- 
spect piping, fittings, and appliances for 
steam and water leaks that may introduce 
moisture into the lagging. Repair leaks as 
necessary and remove wet lagging. Wet 
lagging can accelerate corrosion of the 
boiler external surfaces, especially staybolt 
sleeves and caps. 

b) Thoroughly wash the boiler and firebox and 
remove mud and scale from the mudring, 
crownsheet, bottom of the barrel, and top of 
the firing door. Any mud or loose scale left 
in the boiler will retain moisture leading to 
corrosion. Wash out thermic siphons, arch 
tubes, and circulators. 

c) To protect the boiler interior during stor- 
age, dry the boiler by using compressed 
air to blow out as much water as possible. 
A portable heater placed in the firebox to 
warm the boiler to 200°F (93°C) along with 
a vacuum used to siphon water out via the 
lower washout plugs can aid evaporation 
and drying of any moisture that collects in 
low or impossible-to-drain locations with- 
out harming the sheets. 

Caution: To prevent a build up of steam 
pressure during the drying process, the 
steam dome cover or top washout plugs 
should be removed to enable the moisture 
to escape. In addition, the driving wheels 
should be blocked and the throttle and cyl- 
inder cocks should be opened to permit any 
steam that forms in the superheater units to 
escape. 

d) Superheater units, by nature of design, can 
be difficult to drain and dry out. Typical 
methods include: 

1 ) Pressurize the boiler with compressed 
air with the locomotive stationary and 
blocked in place. Using the throttle to 
regulate the airflow, allow the air to 
blow through the entire bank of super- 



i z i 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



heater units and dry pipe and discharge 
into the cylinders. The cylinder cocks 
must be open. 

2) Pressurize the boiler with compressed 
air and then operate the locomotive 
under air pressure over a short distance 
of track. The cylinder cocks should be 
opened during the initial operation 
to prevent damaging the cylinders by 
hydraulic lock. 

3) If the air pressure draining procedure 
is not practical or cannot be accom- 
plished correctly, the superheater units 
can be protected against trapped mois- 
ture by filling the entire superheater 
bundle with a standard antifreeze/water 
mixture or with diesel fuel. 

Notes: The air pressure dry-out methods 
"1" or "2" may have to be performed 
several times to discharge all of the 
moisture. Refer to S1 .5.5, Use of Com- 
pressed Air to Drain Locomotive Com- 
ponents, for additional information on 
compressed air drying. 

If the locomotive is operated under air 
pressure, the air brake system should 
be made operational to provide safe 
stopping or other steps taken to control 
and stop the locomotive. 

e) After drying, it will be necessary to either 
vent the boiler or to place containers of des- 
iccant inside the boiler through the dome 
cap to absorb any condensation that may 
occur during storage. Venting the boiler to 
allow air circulation is accomplished by 
leaving two or more of the lower washout 
plugs out and opening the vent valve on 
the top of the boiler. A vent line consisting 
of two 90° elbows and pipe nipples should 
be installed in the vent valve to locate the 
opening to the downward direction in order 
to keep rain or snow from entering the open 
valve. 

f) If the locomotive will be stored outdoors, 
the following should be completed: 



1) Inspect the boiler jacket and confirm 
it is tight with no gaps leading into the 
lagging or shell. Pay close attention 
to areas at shell openings such as for 
studs, safety valves, etc. Repair all gaps 
or damaged jacket sections as neces- 
sary. Consideration should be given 
to covering the entire locomotive and 
tender with a tarp. Otherwise, all jacket 
openings should be covered to prevent 
the entrance of rain or snow. Where 
necessary, apply a waterproof covering 
over the exposed or open sections. 

2) The smokestack should be sealed by ap- 
plying a wood and sheet rubber cover 
held in place by clamps or a through 
bolt. 

3) The safety valves should either be cov- 
ered or removed, with plugs or caps 
installed in the holes if the valves are 
removed. 

4) The dynamo, air pump, and feedwater 
heater exhausts should also be cov- 
ered. 

5) Empty and clean the smokebox, front 
tube sheet, superheater units, steam 
pipes, and front end plates of all coal, 
ash, or burnt oil. This work is especially 
critical at the bottom section of the 
smokebox and front tubesheet rivet 
flange. The smokebox door should be 
sealed by applying a gasket or seal- 
ant and any other air openings in the 
smokebox sealed. The exhaust nozzle 
should be sealed by applying a wood 
and sheet rubber cover held in place 
by clamps. 

6) The potential for corrosion of the 
smokebox interior can be further mini- 
mized by applying coating of outdoor 
paint or primer. All inspection of the 
smokebox and front tubesheet must be 
accomplished before painting since it 
will cover up many types of defects. The 
coating will burn off quickly when the 
locomotive is returned to service. 



1 22 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



7) Thoroughly clean the firebox sheets, 
flues, and superheater return bends of 
all ash and clinker. 

8) On coal burners, empty and clean the 
grates and ash pan of all coal and ash 
completely. This work is especially criti- 
cal at the sections between the grate 
bearers, the mudring rivets, and firebox 
sheets; and from the grate segment air 
openings. On oil burners, care should 
be taken to remove ash from between 
the flash wall refractory and the firebox 
sheets. 

9) If the locomotive will be out of service 
for longer than 12 months, removal of 
the brick arch or flash wall refractory 
that extends above the mudring should 
be considered to prevent condensation 
and corrosion from occurring between 
the brick and the steel. Temporary re- 
moval of the brick arch or flash wall 
to permit application of a preservative 
to firebox sides, arch tubes, or siphons 
should be considered for shorter storage 
periods. 

10) All appliances and piping that might 
contain water or condensation should 
be drained and blown dry using dry 
compressed air. This includes the air 
and equalizing reservoirs, dirt collec- 
tors, injectors, cylinders, stoker engine 
cylinders, dynamos, the steam and 
water sides of feedwater heaters and 
pumps, the steam side of air pumps, the 
steam side of lubricators, atomizers, oil 
tank heaters, gage siphons, tank hoses, 
and cab heater piping. A small quan- 
tity of valve oil should be sprayed into 
the valve chambers, cylinders and the 
steam side of all appliances to protect 
against corrosion. Refer to S1 .5.5, Use 
of Compressed Air To Drain Locomotive 
Components, for details. 

1 1 ) The cylinder castings, exhaust cavities, 
and steam lines must be drained of all 
moisture and blown dry. Typical meth- 
ods include: 



a. Pressurize the boiler with com- 
pressed air, with the locomotive sta- 
tionary and blocked in place. Using 
the throttle to regulate the airflow, 
allow the air to blow through the 
dry pipe and discharge into the 
cylinders. The cylinder cocks must 
be open. 

b. Pressurize the boiler with com- 
pressed air then operate the loco- 
motive under air pressure over a 
short distance of track. The cylinder 
cocks should be opened during the 
initial operation to prevent dam- 
aging the cylinders by hydraulic 
lock. 

Note: Methods "1 " or "2" may have 
to be performed several times to 
discharge all of the moisture from 
the cylinders, and steam pipes. If 
the locomotive is operated under 
air pressure, the air brake system 
should be made operational to 
provide safe stopping or other steps 
taken to control and stop the loco- 
motive. 

c. Refer to S1 .5.5, Use of Compressed 
Air to Drain Locomotive Compo- 
nents, for additional information. 

g) Drain and wash tender water spaces. The 
tank should be inspected afterward and 
any remaining water removed by siphon or 
vacuum. When dry, spray the water space 
with outdoor paint or a commercial rust 
preventative. Drain and dry tender tank 
hoses and clean screens. 

h) On coal or wood burners, spray any ex- 
posed surfaces of the tender fuel space 
with outdoor paint or a commercial rust 
preventative. If the locomotive is to be 
stored outdoors for long term, remove all 
coal and spray the surfaces as above or 
cover the coal space with a tarp or a roof. 

i) On oil burners, drain and blow out all fuel 
lines, tank heater and blowback lines, and 
the burner itself. Drain sludge and water 



1 22. i 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



from the bottom of the fuel tank. Ensure 
that tank hatches are secure and the tank is 
vented to prevent condensation. Draining 
the oil tank is recommended if the fuel oil 
is known to lose its volatile content during 
storage. 

j) After cleaning thoroughly, coat all side and 
main rods, cross heads, valve gear, guides, 
piston rods, brake pistons, feedwater 
pump pistons, and air pump pistons with 
water-resistant grease or a rust preventative. 
Grease should be applied to the junction of 
each axle and driving box and journal box 
to prevent water entering. Grease should be 
applied to junction of rod and pin in valve 
gear and rods to prevent water entering. 

k) If the locomotive is moved after this is ap- 
plied, it will be necessary to reapply the 
coating to piston rods and guides. 

Note: Heavy oil or unrefined oil such as 
any of the Bunker types (Bunker 6, etc.) 
should not be used for preservation of any 
components because the sulfur contained 
in it can accelerate corrosion. Standard 
motor oil or journal oil will not stick to 
and preserve wetted surfaces. All surfaces, 
to be so coated, must be dry. If moisture 
is a problem, steam cylinder oil should be 
applied. 

I) Plain journal bearings should be inspected 
for water and repacked. Roller bearing 
boxes should have all moisture drained 
and the boxes filled with lubricant. Grease 
plugs should be screwed down so that the 
threads are not exposed. 

m) If the locomotive is to be stored outdoors 
with questionable or no security, remove 
and store all cab gages, water glasses, lu- 
bricators, brass handles, seatboxes, and any 
other items that thieves or vandals might 
attack. Remove the whistle, bell, headlight, 
and marker, and/or classification lights. Re- 
move tools, radios, and spare parts. Secure 
wood or metal covers over all windows 
and doors, and board up the back of the 



cab. Secure all manholes on the top of the 
tender. 

n) Inspect stored locomotives regularly for 
signs of rust, corrosion, damage, deterio- 
ration, or vandalism and immediately take 
any corrective measures necessary. . 



S1.5.5 USE OF COMPRESSED A!R 

TO DRAIN LOCOMOTIVE 
COMPONENTS 

a) The process of using air pressure to drain 
and empty auxiliary components such as 
the cylinders, superheater units, and piping 
completely of water offers several advan- 
tages over other methods. 

b) The air compressor must be equipped with 
a suitable filter to enable it to supply oil- 
free air because the introduction of air that 
contains oil into the water/steam parts of 
the boiler and superheater will promote the 
formation of scale and water foaming when 
the locomotive is returned to service. 

c) The air compressor must be a large enough 
size to provide the volume and pressure of 
air required. 

d) If the boiler is pressurized with compressed 
air, the air pressure must be raised slowly 
to prevent distorting or overstressing the 
firebox sheets or staybolts because the 
normal expansion of the boiler that occurs 
under steam pressure is not present when 
air pressure is used. 

e) Auxiliary components such as the stokers, 
air compressors, turbo generators, power 
reverse are drained by pressurizing the 
boiler to between 1/2 to 3/4 of the rated 
boiler pressure with compressed air from 
the stationary air compressor, then operat- 
ing each component individually until the 
exhaust from it contains no moisture. 

f) When necessary, specific pipe lines can be 
drained by breaking the line at each end, 
attaching the air line to it directly then 
blowing the line out. 



1 22.2 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



S1.5.6 RETURN TO SERVICE 

a) When returning a locomotive to service, 
the boiler, firebox, and tender tank shall 
be ventilated to remove potentially haz- 
ardous atmosphere from the boiler interior 
before personnel enter it. In addition, the 
atmosphere in the boiler shall be verified 
to be safe for human occupancy before 
personnel enter it. For the boiler this can 
be accomplished by removing the washout 
plugs and placing a fan or air blower on 
top of the steam dome opening to force air 
into the boiler. For the firebox this can be 
accomplished by opening the smokebox 
door and firebox door and placing a fan 
or air blower at either location to force air 
through. Failure to do this could result in 
asphyxiation of the personnel entering the 
boiler or firebox. 

b) If possible, the locomotive should be moved 
into a heated engine house and the boiler 
allowed to warm up in the air for several 
days until it is the same temperature as the 
air. 

c) The initial fire up should be done slowly to 
allow even heating of the boiler. 

d) Before movement, the cylinders should be 
warmed up by allowing a small quantity 
of steam to blow through them and out the 
cylinder cocks and exhaust passages. This is 
necessary to reduce the stress in the casting 
from thermal expansion of the metal. 

e) Steam should be discharged through the 
cylinder cocks for several minutes to aid 
removal of any solvent, debris, or rust that 
may have formed in the superheater units, 
steam pipes, and dry pipe. 

f) All appliances should be tested under steam 
pressure before the locomotive is moved. 



1 23 



NATIONAL BPARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



SUPPLEMENT 2 

HISTORICAL BOILERS 



S2.1 



SCOPE 



a) This supplement is provided as a guide to 
inspection of historical steam boilers of 
riveted and/or welded construction not fall- 
ing under the scope of Supplement 1 . These 
historical steam boilers would include: 
steam tractors, traction engines, hobby 
steam boilers, portable steam boilers, and 
other such boilers that are being preserved, 
restored, and maintained for demonstra- 
tion, viewing, or educational purposes. 

A07 Note: This supplement is not to be used 
for steam locomotive boilers falling under 
the requirements of the Federal Railroad 
Administration (FRA). FRA rules for steam 
locomotive boilers are published in 49 CFR 
230. Specific rules and special require- 
ments for inspection, repairs, alterations, 
and storage of steam locomotive boilers are 
identified in Supplement 1 of the NBIC. 

b) The rules specified in this supplement shall 
be used in conjunction with the applicable 
rules in this Code. References specified or 
contained in this Supplement may provide 
additional information to assist the user 
when applying the requirements of this 
supplement. 



S2.2 



INTRODUCTION 



A07 a) The following inspection rules are mini- 
mum requirements for safe and satisfactory 
operation of historical boilers. Users of 
this supplement are cautioned that where 
complete details are not provided, the user 
is advised to seek technical guidance to 
provide good sound engineering evalua- 
tions and practices. 

A07 b) Where adopted by a Jurisdiction, these 
requirements are mandatory. Where a Ju- 



risdiction establishes different requirements 
for historical boilers or where a conflict 
exists, the rules of the Jurisdiction prevail. 






RESPONSIBILITIES 



The owner-user and/or operator are responsible 
for ensuring that the boiler meets the require- 
ments of the Jurisdiction where the boiler 
is operated, including inspections, repairs, 
licensing, operating certificates, permits, and 
operator training. 

Note: It should be recognized that safety of 
these boilers is dependent upon the knowledge 
and training of the operator in proper use, re- 
pair, maintenance, and safe operation of each 
specific boiler proposed to be operated. (See 
S2.4.3.) 



S2.4 GENERAL INSPECTION 

REQUIREMENTS 

The owner-user and Inspector should refer to 
1 .4 Personnel Safety, Section 3 of this Part, Cor- 
rosion and Failure Mechanisms, and Section 4 
of this Part, Examinations, Test Methods, and 
Evaluations, for additional information when 
performing inspections. 



S2.4.1 PRE-INSPECTION 

REQUIREMENTS 

a) The owner or user has the responsibility to 
prepare the boiler for any required inspec- 
tions needed to ensure safety as deemed 
necessary by the Inspector. Prior to perform- 
ing any type of inspection, the owner and 
Inspector shall ensure safety precautions 
are taken to prevent personal injury. 

b) Prior to conducting an inspection, the fol- 
lowing shall be reviewed by the Inspector 
to the extent possible to aid in determining 
safe operation: 



1 24 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



A07 S2.5.2.2 



VISUAL EXAMINATION 
REQUIREMENTS 



To the extent possible, the following areas 
and items shall be visually examined by the 
Inspector and results documented on the boiler 
inspection guideline (S2.11) provided in this 
supplement, or as required by the Jurisdiction. 
Use of the boiler inspection guideline should 
be used as a reference when performing visual 
inspections. 

a) The fusible plugs shall be removed, inspect- 
ed, and confirmed to meet requirements of 
S2.8.4. 

A07 b) Threaded openings or connections in the 
boiler shall be inspected for wear or dete- 
rioration when there is evidence of leakage. 
ANSI standard plug and ring gages may be 
used to verify thread integrity. 

c) Inspect the condition of boiler sheets, shell, 
tubesheets, fittings, staybolts, and other 
materials for thinning, pitting, cracks, or 
corrosion. 



S2.5.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE 

EXAMINATION 

Magnetic particle examination can be used to 
reveal surface discontinuities and to a limited 
degree discontinuities slightly below the sur- 
face. The sensitivity of this method decreases 
rapidly with depth below the surface and 
therefore is used primarily to examine surface 
discontinuities. 



S2.6 



SPECIFIC TESTING METHODS 



During inspection of historical boilers there 
may be instances where conditions have ad- 
versely affected the tightness of the boiler or 
the inspection discloses hard to evaluate forms 
of deterioration that may affect the safety of 
the vessel. In these specific instances, a pres- 
sure test using water or other suitable liquid 
test medium may be required at the discretion 
of the Inspector to assess leak tightness of the A07 
pressure-retaining item. For safety, pneumatic 
pressure tests shall not be performed. 



d) Verify that requirements of S2.8 through 
S2.9 are in compliance, as applicable. 



S2.5.3 



ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION 



Ultrasonic examination is used as a volumet- 
ric examination of welds and base materials 
for detection of flaws. Factors such as mate- 
rial composition, surface condition, choice of 
equipment, and ability of the operator affect 
the results of ultrasonic examination. 



S2.5.4 LIQUID PENETRANT 

EXAMINATION 

Liquid penetrant examination is used to detect 
discontinuities open to the surface such as 
cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, 
and porosity. 



S2.6.1 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE 

TESTING 

When performing hydrostatic pressure test- 
ing for verification of leak tightness or when 
required by the Jurisdiction, the following 
requirements shall be met: 

a) Hydrostatic pressure test shall be between 
the calculated maximum allowable work- 
ing pressure and 1 .25 times the calculated 
maximum allowable working pressure, ^07 
and held for a minimum of 10 minutes or 

as required to perform a complete visual 
examination. 

b) The metal and water temperature of the 
boiler shall be between 60°F to 1 20°F (1 6°C 
to 49°C) anytime a hydrostatic test is being 
performed. 

c) A calibrated gage acceptable to the Inspec- 
tor shall be used when hydrostatically pres- 
sure testing a boiler. 



1 27 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



d) During hydrostatic testing, safety valve(s) 
shall be removed. 



S2.6.2 ULTRASONIC THICKNESS 

TESTING 

Ultrasonic thickness (UT) testing shall be per- 
formed to determine boiler plate thickness. 
UT testing shall be performed by personnel, 
acceptable to the Jurisdiction and the Inspector. 
The following requirements shall be met to the 
extent possible. Performance and results shall 
be acceptable to the Inspector and, if required, 
the Jurisdiction. 

a) Equipment, operator, and calibration stan- 
dards used shall be documented. 

A07 b) To calculate MAWP, ultrasonic thickness 
testing results in areas of generalized thin- 
ning (3 in. [76 mm] in diameter or greater) 
or where grooved thinning is noted (2 in. 
[50 mm] in length or greater) are to be used 
in determining minimum thickness in ac- 
cordance with S2.1 0. The MAWP calcula- 
tion in S2.1 shall be completed based on 
the thickness data gathered. 

A07 c) On initial UT of stayed sections, the plate 
thickness readings should be taken on a grid 
not exceeding the maximum staybolt pitch. 
Additional readings may be taken close 
to each staybolt to determine if localized 
thinning has occurred. Particular attention 
should be given to the joint between the 
staybolt and the plate. 

d) On initial UT of unstayed sections, the plate 
thickness readings should be taken on a 
grid not exceeding 12 inch (300mm) cen- 
ters. Additional readings should be taken if 
conditions warrant. 

e) UT test results shall be documented so 
location of test results can be checked at 
subsequent UT tests to determine if material 
loss has occurred. 



by randomly checking 1 0% of original UT 
checks. Areas of thinning identified during A07 
previous inspections shall be given particu- 
lar attention. If material loss is determined, 
additional testing may be requested by the 
Inspector. 

g) Particular attention should be placed upon A07 
areas that typically exhibit thinning. These ^Qg 
areas would include the ogee curve, the 
mudlegs, the fusible plug, around feedwater 
inlets, and around the firebox door ring. 

h) The owner/operator shall maintain the A09 
initial and recurring grid mapped UT read- 
ings in conjunction with the calculations in 
permanent boiler records. Documentation 
shall be available to the Inspector for review 
and acceptance. 



S2.7 



INSPECTIONS 



The requirements of this section shall be used 
in conjunction with the general requirements 
identified in S2.4. 



S2.7.1 



INSERVICE INSPECTIONS 



The following examinations and tests shall be 
performed while the boiler is in operation: 

a) Two independent means of boiler feed 
water delivery systems shall be demon- 
strated to the Inspector. Observance to be 
performed at an operating pressure no less 
than 90% of the safety valve set point of the 
boiler. If the boiler is equipped with more 
than one feedwater tank, each feedwater A07 
device must be able to take water out of 
either feedwater tank. Pumped feedwater 
shall be preheated prior to entering the 
boiler. 

b) Demonstration of operable try cocks that 
show a level of water that correlates with 
that shown in the gage glass. 



f) Recurring UT testing shall be performed c) 



Demonstration of operating gage glass up- 
per and lower shutoff valves. 



1 28 



NATIONAL BEARD INSPECTION CODE c PART Z 



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II r - 
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1 34. 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 





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1 34.3 



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8 

rv 


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to 


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CO 


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rv 


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1 35 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



TABLE S2.1 0.3.3 

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for Cylindrical 

Components (Barre!) 



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r. 



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1 36 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE * PART 2 



INSPECTION 





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1 3&. 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE a PART 2 



INSPECTION 







to 

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1— 
co 


CO 


1^ 
CM 
CM 
CO 


to 

CM 

o 

CO 


OO 

CM 


O 

on 

«> 

CM 


3 

«o 

CM 


CM 

CM 


to 

o 

CO 
CM 


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CM 

CM 


to 

o 

CM 


T~ 
O 
CM 


to 

CO 

en 


CM 

to 

00 


CO 

en 




en 


XC 

te 


CM 

to 
to 


CO 
lO 


f 


CM 


CO 
00 
CO 


CO 


o 

CO 


CM 


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o 

CM 


CO 


co 


CO 
CM 


o 

CO 

v- 


CO 

r-- 

o 


CM 

to 

e 






CM 


cm 
to 
on 
CO 


oo 

CO 

co 


CO 

CO 
CO 


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to 

CO 


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OS 
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cn 

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to 


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to 


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00 




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as 


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CO 


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40 


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a 


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CO 


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f~- 


f^- 






























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to 


to 


CO 


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to 


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to 


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1— 


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to 

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to 


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to 




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CO 


oo 


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t^. 


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■rr 




































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cn 


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to 


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V 


CM 

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to 

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to 


00 

to 


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to 


§ 


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IS 

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co 

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o 

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m 


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to 


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to 




































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on 


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to 


to 


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on 


























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to 
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so 


CM 




to 


^ 




to 




to 


to 


to 


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o> 


O 


to 


l»- 


CM 




CO 




































t- 


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a> 


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to 


4 


o 

CO 


GO 

■ft— 


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an 


GO 

OS 


t— > 
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CM 


to 

B0 


to 


CO 




CO 


a 

CO 


CO 
CO 


en 

CM 


to 

CM 


CM 

CM 


00 


•-n 


CM 


0S 


ts 


CO 


T- 


00 


uo 


Sf 


CM 


s 


























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T - 


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r» 


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C7* 


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on 


an 




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5 


to 

CM 
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CO 


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co 




CM 


CO 


o 


CM 


to 


o> 


T" 




OO 


O 


00 


o 


C*< 


t~ 


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07 

OO 


CO 


00 
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CM 


CM 


CO 

CM 


CM 

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CM 


o 

CM 


CM 


00 


to 

T* 


03 
to 


CM 

to 


to 
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IO 


5 


on 

CO 


to 

CO 


o 

CO 


to 

CM 


CM 
CM 


OJ 




CM 

r* 


| 


1 


CO 

o 


o 


00 
OO 

«5> 


«o 

CXI 


5! 

on 


CM 

en 


o 
o 
on 


00 

09 






o 


CO 


<=> 


oo 


«5 


O 


to 


to 


o 


US 


CM 


to 




h~ 




© 






CO 










































CM 

oo 


Q 
CO 


CO 

CM 


CO 

CM 


CM 


CO 

CM 


CM 


oo 
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CM 


on 


00 


on 


1^ 


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to 


CM 

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to 

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CO 


CM 


CO 
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CO 


CM 


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CO 

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00 
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on 


CO 




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OO 

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cn 
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lO 




co 




r- 


m 


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CO 




h- 


o 


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to 


r*- 


CM 


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co 


00 








































CM 
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on 

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cm 


to 


CM 


CM 
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CM 


o. 

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en 


so 




to 


to 


■a- 

to 


1 


CO 


oo 

CO 


CO 
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OO 

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CM 


CM 


p-. 


CO 




IN. 

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o 


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cn 
on 


to 
to 
on 


OO 


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on 

en 
oo 


00 
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on 
to 

OO 


OO 






lO 
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Gft 


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CO 


f- 


OO 


to 


CO 


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r>- 


CM 


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to 








































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09 
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co 

CM 


CM 


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CM 

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o 

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ff> 


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g 


s 


to 
to 


o 
to 


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on 

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CO 


on 

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to 

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to 
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t» 


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p*. 


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1 


* 




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v- 


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^* 


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T- 


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o> 


m 


on 


on 


00 


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CO 


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r» 


r- 






to 


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w> 




■* 


v- 


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en 


h- 


CM 


co 




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00 


& 


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o 


en 


m 


i»- 


to 


to 


o 


3 


OO 
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CO 
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CO 

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cn 


to 




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f** 


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to 

CM 


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to 


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to 

CM 


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t-1 


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T _ 










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p 


to 




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& 

CS 






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m 


o 


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u. 


a. 


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c 


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a. 






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K ^ Ui 



1 36.2 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



TABLE S2.1 0.3.4 

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for Cylindrical 

Components (Barrel) 

For Buttstrap Double Riveted Joint 



T" 






0J 


B i? 




"ft 


■3 : 




-:■ 


o 




p 


o 


<* 1 ~ j -^ 


';? 


-rh 


'^ : 


ft 


C ■: 


5 




□S 


'!;■). 


ft 


•i 


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!r; 


3ft 


Sj 


0-;' 


^ 


M 


§ 


?: 


1 £ 


■o : 


: -6 


". 


s 


■■".■ 




■.•*■■: 


1- 


^ 


o 




ft 


S 


S, 


vO 


■cp.; 


cr^ 


Sj' : 


ft 


X- 




.- 


■o 

3T 


ft 


3 


ft 


si 


s 


C 


ftE-, 


■ 


i 


if 1 


■sS 


CI 


■f ■ '. 


^u 


p' 


-J 


-- 


t 


«T 


■31 


; 


s 


f 


ft 


5: 


o 


; : 


ft 


■aft' 


rj 


■ [ 4 


t 


-- 


S 


■ft 


10 


ft 


vC 


z 


: 


3 


ft 




mm c 


■£■ 


-o 
■r 


-?■ 


o 


:: '-' 

:;^, 


-T 


" : J3 




—i-" 


■X- 




ft 


V: 


■JD 


~i 


r^ 


::!^. 


i 


.-r; : 


ft 


r 'ftj 

~4 




hi' : 


ft 


ft ■ 


-'■ 


Fi 


O-l 


: O / 


o 


Kjft 


cr. 


sc;- 


SSI C3. 

@*1 >-o 


"•c 
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i>! 


a~ 




'£ 
T 


'S-:: 


v- 


b': 


K 


5 


:- 


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cy> 


'§ 




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ft-x-:. 


J'. 

Lr. 


~ 


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■ 


ft 


ft 


2C 


_ 


r 


3ft : 
.r-ft. 


no 
a- 


■'-,: 


a-. 


5 


si ° 


■ : '..p 


o 


.-T-: 


o 




'T 




O 


■CO : 




ft 


x 


" 


ft 


■?:.■ 


S 


O 

■:Ki 


r-. 


H-' 


r}- 


'■j?' 


c- 


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-1 


a: 


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■ •;o. 
c.-,. 

-.. : y- 


o 


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s 


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;.'; 


ic'l 


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z 


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ft 


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S 


i? 


■-D 


: ';f ■ 


5 


't£ ' 


~ 


2; 


20 


;.:j : : 




1 


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s 


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cr> 


■•J- ■ 


■X-- 


J, 


C 


ft 


till t 


ft 


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» 




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Tf 


■3 


X 


■ '•*>: ■■ 


p 


■ r.'-. ■ 




■(i: : 


n 


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ft 


, 


ft 


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ft 


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r>j 


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ft 





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■ !?:■.■ 


CT-. 


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od 


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5| -jj 


■ -x ■ 


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5 


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1t 


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R 


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■ 


c. 


"■to . 


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- 


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-^ 




ft 


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o 


§ 




5 


^ 


3 


2 


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^ 


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SE-' 


3 ^ 


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cc 




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■■ ■■£> :. 
■ : ^.i. 




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Q 




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: 


X 


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3^'- 


co 


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S 


1 


: 




p;- 


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ft? 




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^ 


X 


fto^ft 
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: ,^.. 


vO 


■c- 


ft 


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O 
O 


:'.«= 


o 


tve-- 


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20 


■\2-: 


ft 


■ ^:- 




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■ '.jo-- 


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'". 


b 


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a 


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c-'- 


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- 




3 1-5 


ft: 


ft 


o 


ft 




£' 


0i 


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di 


cc 


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s 


■" 


CO 


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o 


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SB K 


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o 


■. h-. ' 


cc 


, ■<=:■. 


CC' 




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ft 


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6 


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o 

CO 


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ft 


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s 


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sill ' c 


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fc 




5 


1 


K 


3 


S 


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o 


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CO 


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ft 


w 


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ft! 


c 


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c 


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ai 


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CC 


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tn 
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1 . 


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ft 


oo 


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5 


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j- 




£ 


: : 


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- 


cd 


." 


-i 


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CN 


■ -N 


UD jft'c-S- 


o 


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s 


■■ : .=s 


IC 


P 


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m 


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^ 


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en 

CM 
CM 


CM 


s 

CM 


CO 
00 

en 


cn 

CO 


CO 
CO 




CO 

to 


CO 

1 — 
CO 


00 

to 

CO 


to 


IO 





CO 
CO 

CO 


CM 
CM 
CO 


CO 

00 

CM 


CM 


CM 
CM 


cn 


•sp— 


en 


cn 



"fl- 
ee 




en 




to 




en 

CO 


cn 
to 

CO 


co 

CO 


CD 
CO 









CO 


CO 
CM 
CO 


CD 
CO 
CO 


LO 
CO 


T 


CO 
CM 

-5f 


CO 


15 


"2 

CO 


en 

CM 

CO 




CO 
LO 


CO 
CO 




CD 


10 

CM 
CO 




CO 
CO 


CO 
CD 






CO 

CM 


CO 


to 




00 


CO 
CXI 

CO 


O 

CO 
CO 


CO 
co 




CO 

Si 
ay 



to 

eft 


CO 
cr> 








LO 
CM 
O 




CO 




CO 








CO 
CM 




LO 



E £■£ 
Zt-2 - 
"j^ <h >i 
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12 = 

is 11 
^^ 



tu 

x: 



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CO 

DC 
II 

<X 



a. 



CO 

m 



c 
to 
c 
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Ol 

E 
o 

CM«„ 

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CM ^ -O 

cn— & 

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c4 'b 
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XI 

CO 

5 
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3 
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o o 

s « 

co _ 

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1 37 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE - PART Z — INSPECTION 



TABLE S2.1 0.3.5 

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for 

Cylindrica! Components (Barrel) 

For Buttstrap Triple Riveted joint 










lx 


■.:„ 




. : :.. 




,-.. 
















■ : ■.;' 












































CO 


::: f?- 


& 


•^ 


■£ 


^ 


ui 




? 


' ;Si 


-* 


~ 


-t 




-- 


- 


•tT 




?! 


,,"~ 


C 


■ 31 


?i 


N 


■sE 


:■■ ■£■ 


CN J 


■ 


.j- 


: -*; 


m 


Np; 


n! 


: 


r- 


: Cj 


CO 


-■ 


- 


■. cs : - 


^ 


: i-h 








■ *•!' 


Ln 


y-£ 


LT 


: : -*'■■ 


a-, 


f 








: -K 




_ 






^ 


';-;' 










„ 












































































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■:' ■'" 






IJ - 


■.-'.;•■ 


,n 


:■ ' n "- 


^r 


.Tf 


t 






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;': 




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■ n: :. 


m 


' 




..„., 


-.( 


'■;' 


:--] 


.: " i 


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c-.( 


■■CN-: 


rN 


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■Nl 










































































t 


■■.■!.(-( 


T 


rN 
















■ -*: 






















































































































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tr 


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rr 


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PI 


■■■■■■\->A 


c; 


,c-;. 


m 


:■':"''■ 






-'■ 




:-! 


. ~-! 


<N 


N 


>N 


■NNE 


Nl 


. -N; 


CN 






CO 


'■He 


O 


. 


0~! 


■H-^- 


vD 






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■^■■. 


-■•t : 


r> 


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f 




. 
















































































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Ui 








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v:.-''. 


r^ 


: i .- 


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:^ ,! . 














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r-| 




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: :N|- 


N! 


■ 




cn 


Hiiir- 


■^ 


V 


1^ 


1 ■■ 


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i^i 






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" 


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■ '-f 1 : 


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■^. 


r-i 


. '■'' 


tl 


:■ '- •'■ 


<•■! 




r-l 


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■z 


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- ; ~ 


lt, 


■' :^j : 


t 


■?i3M'. 


^D 


: ',i,- 


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3- 






LO 















■ : '-U- 


.- 


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r-i 


i ; K- 




r ._ 




. 


r 




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;.;^ .: 




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■O 


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lA 




^ 


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W 




S 






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3 


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r-j 


T;2- 




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n' 


3 s 


C; 


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CO 


■CO' 


<n 


T- 


i-O 


■iS ; 


^E 






" 


LO 


.' ^j- 


CO 


















r-n- 


[N 


f~\- 






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■-! 




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'■:■■' 


n 


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CN 


: ~. 


— 


.;— : 


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:o 


LO 


■■in 


O 


■- 




.... 








*k( 


K 


:-.^ ; 








:,v. 
















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-. 


ro 








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■.: ■ 


































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~ 


■::■- 


in 


■'" 


'" 








'' 




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■.'■■■ 




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-- 


co 


l/l 


^ 




cc 


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M 


■ cr.'- 


^ 


■' r ^ 


^ 


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LT 


rA 


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■:-^.: 




-, 






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vC 








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CN 












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:- C - 




































































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rvi 


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fl 


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ri 


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^ 














































































~ 


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in 


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■1 : 






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f*l 


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:: "' : 




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in 


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''■' 


■:'■'•;■ 


■r-i 






..~- 


— 


- 


— 


: .— : 


■31 


— 


Ol 


■- 


CN 


: ^: : 


o-> 


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CO 


- 




■;ce 


■O 


... 


O 


5 





:W 


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...-f. 








JsCV 


O 


"^ 




™t' : 




. 


















































































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LTi 


■"::: 


~* 








ro 




nl 


■ .■ ' 


ro 


: - 




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rNj 


v -'■ 


r-l 


■■:•■! 


O) 


^> 


<N 




IN 


I.M 


















f. 


: ,D 


IT, 


■■■a: 


O 


■■':■-•; : 


3> 


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C5 






'cS' 


K 


^ 


^ 


-) 


nl 




LO 


t 




- 


.. 


' :■"■: 




"^ : 






^ 


- 














































































■-■-s 


41 MSI 


- 


: :' : ' 


"" 










:;•;.'■ 


"' 


■■■ 


n> 


■:' ! -|: 


■'' 


..., 


.-J 


:■:'■' 


-1 


1 


rN 


■S~l 


rM 


: ->f 


r-^ 


:'■'■ 




















K 


... 


CN 


CO 


=3 


" r \L ' 


co 


... 


if> 






.f^_. 


■CO 


:-i-L 


\0 


... 


vD 


;^- 








, 




■■■t-- : 




T 




























































































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""■ 


- .:' ■ 






■ ■ 




,M 


! '-. 


n '' 


:"*■■ 




.-•>■ 




■,.'! 


■- 1 




(N 


■<^-!: 


*N 


:<-:!.. 


r-j 




"" 


■~- 


"- 




- 


■E- 


r- 


" 


■- 


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un 


l~. 


N" 


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ro 








P 




fN 


W 


CN 


M 




: J. 


Si 


^ 




■ rN-. 


p 


-.-=:■. 






CO 






■f- . 


vO 








o Wsj* 


1.0 




t 


■-• 


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O 


t-- 






rr-. 


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m 




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r 




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,.vE: 


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-* 


: ''W 


-*■ 






r, 


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^ 


cr- 


,j*i. 


CN 




CN 


p-i 


M 


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: '^ : 


O 


- 


CT- 










.:- 


-i> 








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r-i 


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01 


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10 










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kC 


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kD 


■■ 






rr, 












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nl 




3 












s 


.ilg 


-£> 


•y- : 


* 


- 


r^ 


^ 


n 


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CN 


;. -■!; 




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: ;: k r! 


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c_- 


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-c 








"t 


^ 


: W 


^ 


--■ 


^ 


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.;-,.; 


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CC 


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CO 


;*' 




_ 


r _^ 




,-f 






■ 


CN 








,r 




rr, 






' CO 


;.r, 


;*a-; 


■*r 


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rk 


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c^ 




^ 




r. 


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fN 


■". 


O 


.cv 




■.CO 






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iD 










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.... 


a* 


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m 


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r 


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rN 


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,'lES 



1 38 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



s 



1' 



Si 



3 



5 



Ss 



s 



£ 



& 



I 



3 



§ 



8 



& 



£ 



8 



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£ 



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s 



s 



1 



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8 



& 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 





E 

e. 

a> 

13 
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XT 
1— 

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E 
cz 

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IT 


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Cf 

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t- en rv 

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m m 

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™S2fc¥ 10, '«nc(ii-oocjioiS5 


QIOCMt— ("1 U) O O 4 

Nstoio«jin«)f"j 




adius of Shell (inside Diameter/2), mm 

FS = Factor of Safety 5 

P = MAWP. kPs 






IT 
C\ 
CV 




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LO 


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to 

CO 


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OS 

a 

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in 
in 

cc 

CO 


t£ 
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m 

CO 


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CO 


CM 

co 


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CO l~- 
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CM 
CN 
tffl 

CM 


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CM 

m 

CM 


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CM CV 


Q to 

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CM t- 
CM CM 


CM 


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cn 


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to lt 


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CO 


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to 


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to 
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in 


52 

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rv 


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r- 

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CO 

cn 
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m 

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CO 
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CO 
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CO 
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m 

to 

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m 

o 


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to 


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CO 

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to 


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to 


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in 


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CO 

m 


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to 

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to 

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LO 


CO 
CO 

rv 

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5 


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XT 


to 

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CO 


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CO 


CO 
CO 
CM 

CO 


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CO 


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to 

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CM 


5 

CM 


to 

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CM 


cn 

<M 
CM 


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CM 


CM 

CM 

CM 


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CM 


m 

00 
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CO 
CM 
OJ 


to 
to 

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in 


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CO 

to 

to 


cn 

£ 


CO 
fv 

in 


CO 

CO 

in 


o 
in 


in 
to 


5 


CO 
OJ 

co 


tS 

CO 


CO 
CO 
CO 


ii 

cc 






LO 
CM 


to 

o 

in 


o 

CO 

to 


o> 

CM 

•a- 


CO 

o 


CM 

to 

rv 

CO 


5 
in 

CO 


CO 


CO 


o 

o 

CO 


to 
to 

CO 
CM 


to 
co 

CM 


s 

CM 


CO 

o 
m 

CM 


CO 

o 
■a- 

CM 


in 

CO 
CM 


CM 
CM 


O 

in 

**• 

CM 


IO 
CM 


g 

o 

CM 


CM 

OJ 


CO 

CO 


■«»• 


o 
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o 

CM 


CM 
to 


IV. 

CM 

to 


"3- 

00 

m 


9 


in 
o 

in 


00 

to 


CO 

CO 


o 
o 
•0" 


00 

to 

CO 


00 


g 

CO 


Table S2.10.3.5 Metric (Page 2 of 2) 
wable Working Pressure for Cylindrical Components (Barrel) 
For Buttstrap Triple Riveted Joint 




- 


o 


fv 
CM 

to 

5* 


s 

CM 
"5f 


■a- 

CM 

en 

CO 


CO 

rv 
to 

CO 


CM 

to 

"5r 

CO 


o 
r- 

CM 

CO 


CO 

§ 

CO 


CO 

o> 

CM 


CO 

o 

CO 
CM 


m 
r- 

to 

CM 


OJ 

in 

in 

CM 


CM 
in 

CM 


in 

CO 
CM 


to 

CM 
CM 


O 
CO 

CM 


CM 

o 

CM 


OJ 

s 

CM 


CM 
CD 
OJ 


en 

CO 


CO 

CO 


S 


CO 


CM 

OD 

to 


in 
to 


cn 
m 


OJ 

in 


cn 
o 
m 


fv 


in 

3 


2 
■4> 


to 

CO 


00 
CO 
CO 


00 

o 

CO 


en 

CM 




LO 

IV 

o 


CO 

en 
rv 


CM 


O 
"SI- 


■5C 
CO 

co 

CO 


to 
en 
in 

CO 


CO 

CO 
CO 

CO 


m 
cn 

CO 


r- 

CM 

o 

CO 


to 

CO 
CM 


OJ 
CO 
I-- 
CM 


■er 
to 

CM 


o 
m 

CM 


S3 


o 

CO 
CM 


CM 

CM 
CM 


o 

CO 
CM 


•5T 

in 

Q 
CM 


CO 

to 
o> 


r— 
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in 

eg 


OJ 


CO 

"S- 

IS, 


CM 
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to 


3 

to 


co 

OJ 

m 


m 
in 
in 


•a- 
in 




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CO 


S 

"Bf 


cn 

to 

CO 


00 
CO 
CO 

v- 


o 

CO 


CO 
CM 


g 
CM 




LO 


CM 
00 

to 


cm 

CO 
■0? 


CO 

"r- 

o 

9 


to 

rv 
co 


V) 
CO 


in 
o 

CO 
CO 


1 — 

CM 
CO 


tn 
o> 

CM 


OJ 

o 

CO 
CM 


m 
to 

CM 


■5T 

in 
in 

CM 


CO 

It 

CM 


CO 
CM 


13- 
CM 
CM 


to 

CM 


fl- 
oe 

CM 


to 
o 
o 

CM 


oj 


CO 
oo 


CM 

CO 


to 
in 


CM 

o 


CM 

m 

to 


g 


to 
m 


00 

in 


£ 

£ 


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■a- 

■* 


tf 
o 

■Of 


o 
rv 

CO 


CO 

s 


s 

CO 


fv 

rv 
CM 

1~ 


3 

CM 


CM 

CM 


yy 

12 


CO 

u. 

DC 




LO 
CM 

o 


o 
fv 
in 


en 

CM 
"3- 


rv 
o> 

CO 


to 
in 
to 

CO 


CD 

CM 

■a- 

CO 


CM 
CM 

CO 


[v. 

o 

CO 


to 

00 
00 
CM 


CM 

l~- 

CM 


CM 

to 

CM 


CO 
OJ 

-51- 
CM 


CO 
CO 
CM 


in 

CO 
CM 
CM 


•a- 
c» 

SM 


CJ 
O 

CM 


S 
CM 


OJ 
m 
o> 


s 

CO 


CO 
CM 
CO 


o> 

<o 


■r- 


CM 


CO 

to 


to 
in 


co 

CM 

m 


CM 

CO 


•«J- 


to 
o 

■* 


rv 

CO 

■T- 


00 
CO 
CO 


to 

o 

CO 


in 

tv 
CM 

V— 


to 
«* 

CM 

v— 


en 

CM 


cn 




o 


o> 

w 

"3- 

«3" 


(O 

■a- 


CM 
CM 
CO 
CO 


IV 

to 
m 

CO 


CO 

CO 


iv. 

CO 


CM 
f~ 
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CM 


to 

00 
CM 


m 

r- 

CO 
CM 


CO 

m 

CM 


CM 
CO 
■SI- 
CM 


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CM 

CO 
CM 


OJ 
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CM 
CM 


£2 

CM 


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in 
o 

CM 


CM 

CO 
OJ 


Si 


in 

03 
1— 


CO 
CO 


so 

CM 

r- 


CM 
to 


CM 

to 


"If 
I-- 
in 


OJ 
CM 

in 


CO 

5: 


to 

1 


g 


CM 

fv 

co 


oo 

CO 

CO 


C3 

CO 


fv 

CM 


3 

"<» 

CM 


to 

CM 


OJ 

CO 


CO 

to 


TS = Tensile Strength 380 000 kPa p = 
t = Thickness of Cylindrical Component, mm 
E = Joint Efficiency 88% 




LO 

rv. 


rv 

5 


CO 

o 


to 

CM 

r- 

CO 


CO 
rv 
■a- 

CO 


o 

to 

CO 


cn 

g 

CO 


CO 

CO 
CM 


to 

CM 


CO 
O 

to 

CM 


CO 

1* 

CM 


CM 


CO 

(D 
CM 
CM 


CM 


CO 

o 

CM 


to 
o 
o 

CM 


CM 
CO 
OJ 

V" 


1 


OJ 

o> 
1^. 


OJ 

co 


CO 
CO 

to 


o 

CO 

to 


5 

in 


CO 

in 


g 
"9- 


cn 

■a- 

"S- 


o 

5 


CO 
fv 

CO 


CO 

CO 
CO 


s 

CO 


CM 
tv 
CM 


CM 

CM 

r 


52 

CM 


to 

CO 


en 
in 


"3- 
CO 

">— 


E 
E 




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to 

CO 
CM 


o 

CO 


CO 

to 

CO 


en 

CO 

co 

CO 


rv 

pv 

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o 
cn 
cn 

CM 


CM 
CO 
CM 


in 
to 

CM 


5 

in 

CM 


O 
CM 

CM 


o 

CO 
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CM 
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OS 

CM 


co 

s 

CM 


in 
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CO 

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5— ' 


m 

CO 


CO 

in 


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cn 
to 


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to 


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in 


in 

OJ 

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CM 


CM 

5- 


■US- 
IV. 
CO 


oo 

CO 
CO 


CO 

o 

CO 


|v 
CM 


O 
CM 


O 
CM 


CM 
CO 

T— 


in 
in 


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T"" 


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o 


ro 

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LO 
CM 
CB 


CM 

5 


& 

CO 
CO 


to 

s 

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CM 

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OJ 

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CO 


o> 

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to 

r- 

CM 


in 
o 
to 

CM 


in 

CM 


in 

CO 
CM 


o 

in 

CM 

CM 


CM 

m 

CM 


CM 

to 

O 
CM 


O 
CO 
OJ 


o 

3J 


CO 
CO 
CO 


to 
to 

•s 


co 


o 
m 
to 


to 
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in 


l*~ 

■«• 
in 


o 
o 
in 


to 

m 


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5- 


in 

CO 


CO 
CO 
CO 


CM 
O 
CO 


OJ 

to 

CM 


rv 

CO 

CM 


rv 
o 

CM 


CO 

V. 


In 


in 

CM 


•T- 


to 
rv. 

CO 








cn 


CO 

1 


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co 


o 

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co 


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CO 
CO 
CO 
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w 
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m 
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m 
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IV 




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3 


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30 


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to 


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CO 


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N 

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cn 

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<* 

to 

US- 
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CM 
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CM 
CM 


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CD 


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r- 


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30 








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cn 


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33 


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CD 


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3B 


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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



TABLE S2.1 0.3.6 

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for 

Cylindrical Components (Barrel) 

For Buttstrap Quadruple Riveted Joint 



4> -& -& -& ± b ^4>- 

b- V 7 "t" "^ ^ "^ 



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1- 





1 39 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE * PART 2 



INSPECTION 



S2.10.4 STAYED SURFACES 

The maximum allowable working pressure for 
stayed flat plates and those parts which, by 
these rules, require staying as flat plates with 
stays or staybolts of uniform diameter sym- 
metrically spaced, shall be calculated using 
the following formula or Tables S2.10.4 and 
S2. 10.4.1: 



A07 P 



T 2 x S x C 



See definitions of nomenclature in S2.1 0.6 



A08S2.1 0.4.1 STAYBOLTS 

Table S2. 10.4.1 may be used to determine 
the MAWP for corroded staybolts. The table 
A09 is based on a stress value of 7,500 psi (51.7 
MPa) for staybolts that was the value used in the 
ASME Section 1 , 1 971 Edition. The table identi- 
fies a calculated MAWP based on measuring 
the staybolt spacing on the crownsheet and the 
minimum diameter of the corroded staybolt. 
See Table S2. 10.4.1. 



S2.10.5 CONSTRUCTION CODE 

To address the many pressure-related compo- 
nents and features of construction encountered 
in firetube boilers, a reprint of the 1 971 Edition 
of Section I of ASME Boiler Code, Part PFT is 
provided for information only. This section 
may be used for actual repairs/alterations and 
inspection/evaluation of boilers. 



S2.10.6 NOMENCLATURE 

The nomenclature for the terms used in the 
above equations is: 

p = maximum pitch measured between straight 
lines passing through the centers of the 
staybolts in the different rows, which lines 
may be horizontal, vertical, or inclined, 
inches or mm 



R = inside radius of the weakest course of shell 
or drum, in inches or mm 

TS = ultimate tensile strength of shell plates, 
psi (MPa) 

t= minimum thickness of shell plate in the 
weakest course, inches or mm 

P = calculated MAWP psi (MPa) 

S = maximum allowable stress value, psi A07 
(MPa) 

C=2.1 for welded stays or stays screwed 
through plates not over 7/16 in. (11 mm) 
in thickness with ends riveted over 

C=2.2 for welded stays or stays screwed 
through plates over 7/16 in. (11 mm) in 
thickness with ends riveted over 

C =2.5 for stays screwed through plates and fit- 
ted with single nuts outside of plate, or with 
inside and outside nuts, omitting washers 

C =2.8 for stays with heads not less than 1 .3 
times the diameter of the stays screwed 
through plates, or made a taper fit and hav- 
ing the heads formed on the stays before 
installing them and not riveted over, said 
heads being made to have true bearing on 
the plate 

C = 3.2 for stays fitted with inside and outside 
nuts and outside washers where the diam- 
eter of washers is not less than 0.4p and 
thickness not less than t 

Note: The ends of stays fitted with nuts shall 
not be exposed to the direct radiant heat of 
the fire. 

E = the efficiency of the longitudinal riveted 
joint 

The following is a table of efficiencies (E), 
which are the average for the different types 
of riveted joints. 



Type of Riveting 


Lap 


Butt 


Single 


58 




Double 


74 


82 


Triple 


78 


88 


Quadruple 




94 



1 4D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



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INSPECTION 



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1 41 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE ' PART 2 — INSPECTION 



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1 42 



NATIDNAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



INITIAL BOSLER CERTIFICATION REPORT (Form C-1) continued 



■'.: ' VALVES AND PIPING (per S2.9 and S2.9.1J , * ' •' 


MAIN STEAM (dome) VALVE 


MAIN STEAM PIPING 


THROTTLE VALVE 


PIPE NIPPLES AT SHELL 


FEEDLINE STOP VALVE(s) 


FEEDLINE CHECK VALVES 


FEEDWATER PIPING TO INJECTORS & PIPING 


BLOWDOWN PIPING 


STEAM PIPING TO INJECTORS & PIPING 


BLOWDOWN VALVES 


INJECTOR ISOLATION (steam & water) VALVES 


PIPING SUPPORTS 


BLOWER VALVE 


BLOWER PIPING 






EXISTING REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS 















EXTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION FINDINGS 



INTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION FSNuiNGS 



MAWP CALCULATIONS USING ULTRASONIC THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS 



BARREL: P = (TS x Tmin x E)/(R X FS) [per Table S2.1 0.3] 



FIREBOX: P = (T 2 x S x C/Pitch Max 2 ) [per Table S2.10.4] 



HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST ( per S2.6.1) 



TEST PRESSURE — PSI 



TEST TEMPERATURE — °F 



TEST DATE 



TEST PROBLEMS 



(Page 2) 



1 SI 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



INITIAL BOILER CERTIFICATION REPORT (Form C-1) continued 



ABSENCE OF LEAKS 



OPERATING INSPECTION AT PRESSURE 



TEST OF INJECTOR(S) & PUMP (if used) 



TEST OF TRY-COCKS 



OPERATION OF THROTTLE & GOVERNOR 



TEST OF BLOWDOWN VALVE 



TEST OF SAFETY VALVE(S) 



VALVE POPPING POINTS BLOWDOWN 



(Page 3) 



This form may be obtained from The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 1 055 Crupper Ave., Columbus, OH 43229 

1 62 



NB-405 Rev. 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 8 PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Figure S4.10-y 

Elastomeric Gasket Extruding. Possible causes are 

excessive bolt torque or improper bolting sequence. 



mmiBip 
IBH-' 

ff§||§§|§pfi 
■■111 




mm 



Figure S4.10-Z 

Incorrect Gusset Attachment. Possible causes are gussets 

not extending out from flange a minimum of 30° from the 

axis of nozzle neck or gusset attachments used as part of 
the flange thickness. 



jjjlllf! 

w 



15IllllP 5r 



1 S3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 

Figure $4.10-aa 

Star Crack. Possible cause is externa! impact. 




Figure S4.1Q-bb 
Excessive Use of Putty. 



mmBBmBEBKBM 



1 84 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



Section VIII, Div. 1 (Rules for Construction 
of Pressure Vessels). 

b) American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers: 



j) United Nations Recommendations on the 
Transport of Dangerous Goods - Modal 
Regulations. (Published by the United Na- 
tions Publications, 2 UN Plaza, New York, 
New York 10017.) 



1 ) ASME Section V (Nondestructive Exami- 
nation) 

2) ASME Section IX (Welding and Brazing 
Qualifications). 

c) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Parts 
1 00 through 1 85, Transportation. 

d) American Petroleum Institute — API 579, 
Fitness for Service. 

e) ADR 2003, European Agreement Concern- 
ing the International Carriage of Dangerous 
Goods by Road. (Published by the UN Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe, Informa- 
tion Service, Palais des Nations, C7-1211 
Geneve, Suisse.) 

f ) CG A 6-4 . 1 , Cleaning Equipmen t for Oxygen 
Service. 

g) CGA S-1 .2, Pressure Relief Device Stan- 
dard, Part 2: Cargo and Portable Tanks for 
Compressed Gases. (Published by the Com- 
pressed Gas Association, Inc. [CGA], 4221 
Walney Road, Chantilly, VA 201 51 .) 

h) IMDG Code 2002, International Maritime 
Dangerous Goods Code (including Amend- 
ment 31 -02. (Published by the International 
Maritime Organization [IMO], 4 Albert 
Embankment, London, SE1 7SR.) 



k) SSPC Publication #91-12, Coating and 
Lining Inspection Manual. (Published by 
Steel Structures Painting Council, 4400 Fifth 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15212-2683.) 



S6.10 



CONCLUSION 



a) During any continued service inspections 
or tests of transport tanks, performed by the 
Registered Inspector, the actual operating 
and maintenance requirements as speci- 
fied in this supplement shall be satisfied. 
The Registered Inspector shall determine, 
based on the applicable requirements of 
the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, 
Parts 1 00 through 1 85, and this appendix, 
whether the transport tank can continue to 
be safely operated. 

b) Defects or deficiencies in the condition, 
operation, and maintenance requirements 
of the transport tank, including piping, 
valves, fittings, etc., shall be discussed with 
the owner or user of the transport tank at the 
time of inspection. Defects or deficiencies 
shall be corrected using the appropriate 
methods prior to returning the transport 
tank to service. 



S6.11 PERSONNEL SAFETY AND 

INSPECTION ACTIVITIES 



RID 2003, Carriage of Dangerous Goods. 
(Published by the Intergovernmental Orga- 
nization for International Carriage by Rail 
[OTIF], Gyphenhubeliweg 30, C7-3006 
Berne, Suisse.) 



a) Proper inspection of transport tanks may 
require pre-inspection planning. This plan- 
ning should include development of an in- 
spection plan that will satisfy the applicable 
technical requirements of this part, the 



2 1 3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Parts 
100 through 185, Transportation, and ap- 
propriate safety considerations. The inspec- 
tion plan should also include the applicable 
failure and deterioration mechanisms, and 
inspection methods and the requirements 
of the applicable Competent Authority. 

b) This Supplement describes pre-inspection 
and post-inspection activities applicableto 
all transport tanks. Specific inspection re- 
quirements for transport tanks are identified 
in Sections S6. 13 for Cargo Tanks, S6.14for 
Portable Tanks, S6.15 for Ton Tanks. 

c) Personnel safety is the joint responsibility 
of the owner or user and the Registered 
Inspector. All applicable safety regulations 
shall be followed. This includes, if appli- 
cable, all governmental rules and regula- 
tions. Owner's or user's personnel safety 
programs and/or safety programs by the 
Inspector's employer or similar regulations 
such as confined space requirements also 
apply. 



S6.1 2 TRANSPORT TANK ENTRY 

REQUIREMENTS 

a) No transport tank shall be entered until it 
has been properly prepared for inspection. 
The owner or user and the Inspector shall 
determine that the transport tank may be 
entered safely. This shall include: 



3) If personal protective equipment is re- 
quired to enter the transport tank, the 
necessary equipment is available, and 
the Inspector is properly trained in its 
use; and 

4) An effective energy isolation program is 
in place and in effect that will prevent 
the unexpected release of energy or 
media to enter the transport tanks. 

b) The Inspector shall be satisfied that a safe 
atmosphere exists before entering the trans- 
port tank. The oxygen content of breathable 
atmosphere shall be between 19.5% and 
23.5%. 

c) The Inspector shall not be permitted to enter 
an area if toxic, flammable, or inert gases 
or vapors are present and above acceptable 
limits without proper personal protective 
equipment. Protective equipment may 
include, among other items, protective 
outer clothing, gloves, eye protection, foot 
protection, or respirators. 

d) The Inspector shall have proper training 
governing the selection and use of any 
personal protective clothing and equipment 
necessary, particularly related to respiratory 
protection if the testi ng of the atmosphere of 
the transport tank reveals any hazards. This 
requirement is to ensure that the inspection 
may be performed safely. 



1) Potential hazards associated with the 
entry into the transport tank have been 
identified by the owner or user and are 
brought to the attention of the Inspec- 
tor, along with acceptable means or 
methods for mitigating each of these 
hazards; 

2) Coordination of entry into the transport 
tank by the Inspector and the owner or 
user representative(s) working in or near 
the transport tanks; 



S6.12.1 PRE-INSPECTION ACTIVITIES 

a) Prior to conducting the inspection, a review 
of the history of the transport tank and a 
general assessment of current conditions 
shall be performed. This shall include a 
review of information, such as: 

1) Date of the last inspection; 

2) Current Inspection Certificate; 



2 1 4 



NATIONAL BPARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



S6.13.10 



cc. soft spots when the hose 
is under pressure, or any 
loose outer covering on 
the hose; 

dd. damaged, slipping, or 
excessively worn hose 
couplings; 

ee. loose or missing bolts or 
fastenings on the bolted 
hose coupling assembly; 

ff. Stainless steel flexible 
connectors with damaged 
reinforcement braid; 

gg. Internal self-closing stop 
valves that fail to close 
or that permit leakage 
through the valve detect- 
able without the use of 
instruments; 

hh. Pipes or joints that are 
severely corroded. 



NEW OR REPLACED DELIVERY 
HOSE ASSEMBLIES 



The operator shall repair hose assemblies and 
place the cargo tank back inservice if retested 
successfully in accordance with the following: 

a) The new and/or replaced hose assembly is 
tested at a minimum of 120% of the hose's 
MAWP; 

b) The operator shall visually examine the 
delivery hose assembly while its under 
pressure; 

c) If the test is successful, the operator shall 
ensure that the delivery hose assembly is 
permanently marked with the month and 
year of the test; 

d) It should be noted that after July 1 , 2000, 
the operator shall complete a record docu- 



menting the test and inspection, which shall 
include the following: 

1) The date and signature of the Inspector 
that performed the inspection; 

2) The owner of the hose assembly; 

3) The hose identification number; 

4) The date of the original delivery of the 
hose assembly and tests; 

5) Notes of any defects observed; 

6) Any repairs that may have been made; 
and 

7) Identification in the written report that 
the delivery hose assembly passed or 
failed the tests and inspections. 



S6.13.10.1 THICKNESS TESTING 

a) Thickness testing of the head and shell of 
un lined cargo tanks used for the transporta- 
tion of materials corrosive to the cargo tank 
shall be measured at least once every two 
years. 

b) Cargo tanks measuring less than the sum of 
the minimum prescribed thickness in Tables 
S6.13.1-aor S6.13.1-b, as applicable, plus 
one-fifth of the original corrosion allow- 
ance shall be tested annually. 



S6.1 3.10.2 TESTING CRITERIA 

The testing criterion that shall be used for these 
requirements are as follows: 

a) The measuring device shall be capable of 
accurately measuring thickness to within ± 
.50mm (.002 inch); 



23 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



b) The individuals performing thickness test- 
ing shall be trained in the proper use of the 
thickness testing device used in accordance 
with the testing device manufacturer's in- 
structions; 

c) Thickness testing shall be performed in the 
following areas, as a minimum: 

1) Areas of the tank shell and heads, in- 
cluding around any piping that retains 
lading; 

2) Areas of high shell stress, such as the 
bottom center of the cargo tank; 

3) Areas near openings; 

4) Areas around weld joints; 

5) Areas around shell reinforcements; 

6) Areas around appurtenance attach- 
ments; 

7) Areas near the upper coupler (fifth 
wheel) assembly attachments; 

8) Areas near suspension system attach- 
ments and connecting structures; 

9) Known thin areas in the tank shell and 
nominal liquid level lines; and 

1 0) Connecting structures joining multiple 
cargo tanks of carbon steel in a self- 
supporting cargo tank motor vehicle. 



S6.13.1 0.3 THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS 

a) The minimum thickness for MC 300, MC 
301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 304, MC 305, 
MC 306, MC 307, MC 310, and MC 312 
cargo tanks are determined based on the 
definition of minimum thickness defined in 
CFR, Title 49, Part 1 78.320(a). 



b) Tables S6.1 3.1 -a and S6.1 3.1 -b identify the 
"Inservice Minimum Thickness" values to 
determine the minimum thickness for the 
referenced cargo tank. 

c) The tables are divided into three columns. 
The column headed "Minimum Manufac- 
tured Thickness" indicates the minimum 
values required for new construction if 
DOT 400 series cargo tanks. 

d) The "Inservice Minimum Thicknesses" 
for cargo tanks specified in (a) above are 
based on 90% of the manufactured thick- 
ness specified in the DOT Specification, 
rounded off to three places. 



S6.13.11 CARGO TANKS THAT NO 

LONGER CONFORM TO THE 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 
REQUIREMENTS IN TABLES 
S6.13.1-aANDS6.13.1-b 

If a cargo tank does not conform to the mini- 
mum thickness requirements inTables S6.1 3.1 - 
a and S6.1 3. 1-b for the design as manufactured, 
the cargo tank should be used at a reduced 
maximum weight of lading or reduced MAWP, 
or combinations thereof, provided the follow- 
ing is met: 

a) The cargo tank's design and thickness are 
appropriate for the reduced loadings condi- 
tions as follows: 

1) The cargo tank's design and thickness 
for the appropriate reduced loading 
shall be certified by a Design Certifying 
Engineer; 

2) A revised manufacturer's certificate 
shall be issued; and 

3) The cargo tanks motor vehicle's name- 
plate shall reflect the revised service 
limits. 

b) It is required if a cargo tank no longer 
conforms with the minimum thickness 



Z32 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



requirements prescribed in the specifica- 
tion, that the cargo tank cannot be returned 
to hazardous material service. The cargo 
tank's specification plate shall be removed, 
obliterated, or covered in a secure manner. 
The inspector shall require that the cargo 
tank is calculated to identify the thickness 
of the material as required in S6.13.10.1 
and S6. 13. 10.2 of this section. 

c) MC cargo tanks constructed prior to Oc- 
tober 1, 2003, require that the minimum 
thickness, minus the corrosion allowance 
as provided on the Manufacturer's Data 
Report. 

d) MC cargo tanks constructed after October 
1, 2003, require that the minimum thick- 
ness will be the value indicated on the 
specification plate of the cargo tank. If no 
corrosion allowance is indicated on the 
Manufacturer's Data Report, then the thick- 
ness of the cargo tank shal I be the thickness 
of the material of construction indicated on 
the Manufacturer's Data Report, with no 
corrosion allowance. 



S6.13.11.1 MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR 
400 SERIES CARGO TANKS 

400 series cargo tanks are required to satisfy the 
minimum thickness requirements as established 
in Part 1 78.320(a) of Title 49 for DOT 406 cargo 
tanks, Part 1 78.347.2 of Title 49 for DOT 407 
cargo tanks and Part 1 78.348.2 of Title 49 for 
DOT 412 cargo tanks. 



S6.1 3.1 1 .2 DOT 406 CARGO TANKS 

a) It is required that all head, shell, bulkhead, 
and baffle materials used in the construc- 
tion of DOT 406 cargo tanks satisfy Parts 
A and B of Section II of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Coc/e,except that the 
following materials are authorized for cargo 
tanks constructed in accordance with ASME 



Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code that are not 
stamped with the "U"Code Symbol Stamp 
must be constructed out of ASTM materi- 
als permitted in Part 1 78.345-2 of Title 49. 
These materials are as follows: 

1) ASTM A 569, 

2) ASTM A 570, 

3) ASTM A 572, 

4) ASTM A 607, 

5) ASTM A 622, 

6) ASTM A 656, and 

7) ASTM A 715. 

b) Aluminum alloys suitable for fusion weld- 
ing and conforming with the O, H 32, or 
H 34 temper of one of the following ASTM 
Specifications may be used for cargo tanks 
constructed in accordance with the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: 

1) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5052, 

2) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5086, 

3) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5154, 

4) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5254, 

5) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5454, and 

6) ASTM B 209, Alloy 5652. 

c) All heads, bulkheads, and baffles must be of 
O temper (annealed) or stronger temper. All 
shell material shall be of H 32, or H 34 tem- 
per, except that the lower ultimate strength 
temper should be used if the minimum 
shell thickness in the tables are increased in 
proportion to the lesser ultimate strength. 

d) Table S6.13.11.2-a specifies the mini- 
mum thickness requirements for heads 



233 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Table S6.1 3.1 1.2 -a 
Minimum Thickness for Heads 



Materials 


Volume capacity in liter per mm of length (gallons per inch of length) 


1 4 (0.2 1 1 or less 


Over 14 to 23 (0.21 to 0.36) 


Over 23 (0.36) 


MS 


HSLA 
SS 


AL 


MS 


HSLA 
SS 


AL 


MS HSLA AL 
SS 


Thickness, 
mm (in.) 


2.54 
i.100) 


2.54 
(. 1 00) 


.160 
(4.06) 


.115 

(2.92) 


.155 

(3.94) 


.173 
(4.39) 


.129 
(3.28) 


.129 
(3.28) 


.187 

(4.75! 



Table S6.1 3.1 1.2-b 

Minimum Thickness for Shells, in. (mm) 



Cargo tank motor vehicle rated capacity in liters (gallons) 


MS 


SS/HSLA 


AL 


More than to at least 4,500 (0 to 1 7,000) 


2.54(0.100) 


2.54(0.100) 


3.84(0.151) 


More than 4,500 to at least 8,000 (1 7,000 to 30,300) 


2.92 (0.115) 


2.54(0.100) 


4.06(0.160) 


More than 8,000 to at least 1 4,000 (30,300 to 53,000) 


3.28(0.129) 


3.28(0.129) 


4.39(0.173) 


More than 14,000(53,000) 


3.63 (0.143) 


3.63 (0.143) 


4.75 (0.187) 


Note: The maximum distance between bulkhead, baffles, or 


ring stiffeners shal 


1 not exceed 1,525 


mm (60 inches) 





or bulkheads and baffles when used as 
tank reinforcement that is based on the 
volume capacity in liters per mm (gallons 
per inch) of length for MC 406 cargo tanks 
constructed out of Mild Steel (MS), High 
Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic 
Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL). 

e) Table S6.1 3.1 1 .2-b specifies the minimum 
thickness requirements for shell based on 
the cargo tank motor vehicle rated ca- 
pacity in gallons when the cargo tank is 
constructed out of Mild Steel (MS), High 
Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic 
Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL). The 
thickness requirements in these tables are 
specified in decimal of a mm (inch) after 
forming. 



S6.1 3.1 1 .3 DOT 407 CARGO TANKS 

a) It is required that the type of materials used 
for DOT 407 cargo tanks, depending on the 
type of media being transferred be either 
Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy 



Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), 
or Aluminum. 

b) The minimum required thickness of materi- 
als specified inTable S6.1 3.1 1 .3-a for DOT 
407 cargo tanks, when the minimum thick- 
ness requirements are based on the volume 
capacity in Liters per sq mm (gallons per 
square inch) for the cargo tank's heads, or 
bulkheads and baffles, when these items 
are used for reinforcement purposes. All 
thicknesses are expressed in decimals of a 
mm (inch) after forming. 

c) The minimum required thickness of materi- 
als specified inTable S6.1 3.1 1 ,3-b for DOT 
407 cargo tanks, when the minimum thick- 
ness requirements are based on the volume 
capacity in Liters per sq. mm (gallons per 
square inch) for the cargo tank shell. All 
thicknesses are expressed in decimals of a 
mm (inch) after forming. 



234 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Table S6.1 3.1 1.3-a 

Minimum Thickness for Heads (DOT 407), mm (in.) 



Volume capacity 
sq. mm 

(in gal./sq. in. I/) 


10(0.122) 
or less 


Over 1 
to 14 

(0.122 
to 0.171) 


Over 1 4 
to 18 

(0.171 
to 0.22) 


Over 1 8 
to 22 
(0.22 
to 0.268) 


Over 22 
to 26 
(0.268 
to 0.317) 


Over 26 
to 30 

(0.317 
to 0.365) 


Over 30 

(0.365) 


Thickness (MS) 


2.54 

(0.100: 


2.54 
(0.100! 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 
(0.I43) 


3.96 
(0.1 56i 


Thickness 
(HSLA) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 

(0.143) 


3.96 

(0.156) 


Thickness (SS) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 
(0.143) 


3.96 

(0.156) 


Thickness (A) 


4.06 
(0.160) 


4.06 
(0.160) 


4.39 
(0.173) 


4.75 
(0.187) 


4.92 
(0.194) 


5.49 
(0.216) 


6.02 

(0.237) 



Table S6.1 3.1 1.3-b 

Minimum Thickness for Shells (DOT 407), mm (in.) 



Volume capacity 
in gal./sq. in. 
(l/sq. mm) 


10(0.122) 
or less 


Over 10 
to 14 
(0.122 
to 0.171) 


Over 1 4 

to 18 

(0.171 
to 0.22) 


Over 1 8 
to 22 
(0.22 
to 0.268) 


Over 22 
to 26 
(0.268 
to 0.317) 


Over 26 
to 30 

(0.317 
to 0.365) 


Over 30 

(0.365) 


Thickness (MS) 


2.54 

(0.100: 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 
(0.143) 


3.96 
(0.156) 


Thickness 
(HSLA) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 

(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 
(0.143) 


3.96 
(0.156) 


Thickness (SS) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.54 
(0.100) 


2.92 
(0.115) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.28 
(0.129) 


3.63 
(0.143) 


3.96 
(0.156) 


Thickness (A) 


3.84 
(0.151) 


3.84 

(0.151) 


4.06 
(0.160) 


4.39 
(0.173) 


4.92 
(0.194) 


5.49 
(0.216) 


6.02 

(0.237) 



S6.1 3.1 1 .4 DOT 41 2 CARGO TANKS 

a) It is required that the type of materials used 
for DOT cargo tanks, depending on the type 
of media being transferred be either Mild 
Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel 
(HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or 
Aluminum. 

b) The minimum required thickness of ma- 
terials specified in Table S6.13.11.4-a for 
DOT 41 2 cargo tanks, when the minimum 
thickness requirements are based on the 
volume capacity in liters per sq mm (gal- 
lons per square inch) for cargo tanks head, 
or bulkheads and baffles, when these items 



are used for reinforcement purposes. All 
thicknesses are expressed in decimals of 
mm (inch) after forming. 

The minimum required thickness of ma- 
terials specified in Table S6.1 3.11 .4-b for 
DOT 41 2 cargo tanks, when the minimum 
thickness requirements are based on the 
volume capacity in liters per sq mm (gallons 
per square inch) for the cargo tank's shell. 
All thicknesses are expressed in decimals 
of mm (inch) after forming. 



235 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 









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236 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CDDE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



2) Portable tanks shall be either hydrostati- 
cally or pneumatically tested with the 
formula 1 .5 x design pressure + static 
head + 1 01 kPa (1 4.7 psi), if the tank is 
designed for external pressure. 

3) The portable tank shall be subjected to 
either a hydrostatic or pneumatic test at 
a test pressure of 1 .5 x the sum of the 
design pressure + the static head of lad- 
ing +101 kPa (14.7 psi), if subjected to 
external vacuum. If the portable tank is 
constructed in accordance with ASME 
Section XII or Part UHT of ASME Sec- 
tion VIII, Div. 1 , the test pressure shall 
be twice the design pressure. 

4) A pneumatic test may be used in lieu 
of a hydrostatic test if the following 
conditions are met: 

a. The owner-user has taken necessary 
precautions to ensure the safety of 
the inspection and test personnel; 

b. The pneumatic test pressure shall 
be reached gradually by increas- 
ing the test pressure to one-half of 
the test pressure. Once this pres- 
sure is reached, the test pressure 
will be increased in increments 
of approximately one-tenth of the 
test pressure until the required test 
pressure is reached; and 

c. When the test pressure is reached, 
the test pressure shall be reduced 
to at least four-fifths of the test pres- 
sure and held for a sufficient time 
to permit inspection of the portable 
tank. 



S6.14.4 EXCEPTIONAL INSPECTION 
AND TEST 

a) Exceptional inspection and test is neces- 
sary when a portable tank shows evidence 



of damage, corroded areas, or leakage, or 
other conditions that indicate a deficiency 
that could affect the integrity of the portable 
tank. 

b) The extent of the exceptional inspection 
and test shal I depend on the amount of de- 
terioration of the portable tank. The excep- 
tional inspection and test shall include the 
requirements of S6.14.3 of this section. 

c) Pressure relief devices do not need to be 
included in this test unless there is reason to 
believe the relief device has been affected 
by damage or deterioration. 



S6.14.5 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL 
INSPECTION PROCEDURE 

An internal and external inspection, when 
required, shall be performed by the owner- 
user. The inspection shall be conducted by the 
Inspector. This individual shall ensure that the 
portable tank is safe for continued transporta- 
tion service. The Inspector shall evaluate the re- 
sults of the inspection and report the applicable 
findings. The inspection shall include: 

a) Inspection of the shell for pitting, corrosion 
or abrasions, dents, distortions, defects in 
welds, or any other conditions, including 
leakage; 

b) Inspection of the piping, valves, and gas- 
kets for corroded areas, defects, and other 
conditions, including leakage that might 
make the portable tank unsafe for filling, 
discharge, or transportation; 

c) The tightening devices for manhole covers 
are operative, and there is no leakage at the 
manhole cover or gasket; 

d) Missing or loose bolts or nuts on any flanged 
connections including piping flanges, pres- 
sure relief device connections, or blank 
flanges. If any bolts are loose or missing, 
these shall be tightened or replaced; 



241 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



e) All emergency devices and valves to 
ensure that they are free from corrosion, 
distortion, and any damage or defects that 
could prevent the devices from operating 
as designed; 

f) All remote closures and self-closing stop 
valves shall be operated to demonstrate 
their proper operation; 

g) The required markings on the portable tanks 
shall be legible and in accordance with the 
applicable requirements of CFR Title 49, 
Part 1 78.3, and Part 1 80.605; and 

h) The framework, supports, and the arrange- 
ments for lifting the portable tank to ensure 
that they are in a satisfactory condition. 



S6.14.6 PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURES 
FOR SPECIFICATION 51, 57, 60, 
IM OR UN PORTABLE TANKS 

This section provides the requirements for 
pressure test procedures for Specification 51, 
57, 60, IM or UN Portable Tanks as provided 
in CFR Title 49, Part 180.605(h). Pressure test 
requirements for Specification 51, 57, 60, IM 
and UN Portable Tanks are identified in Table 
S6.13.6 of this subsection. 



S6.14.6.1 SPECIFICATION 57 PORTABLE 
TANKS 

a) Specification 57 portable tanks shall be 
leak tested by a minimum sustained air 
pressure of at least 21 kPa (3 psig) applied 
to the entire tank. 



Table S6.1 4.6 

Pressure Testing Requirements 



Specification 


Leak Test 


Hydrostatic 


Pneumatic 


Test Media 


Minimum Test Pressure 


51 and 56 




X 


X 


Liquid or Air 


14 kPa (2 psii or at least 
1-1/2 times the design 
pressure, whichever is 
greater 


51 and 56 used for 
transport refriger- 
ated liquefied gas 


X 


X 


X 


Liquid or Air 


90% of the Maximum 
Allowable Working 
Pressure 


51 and 56 for the 
transport of all other 
materials 




X 


X 


Liquid or Air 


25% of the Maximum 
Allowable Working 
Pressure 


57 


X 


— 


— 


— 


21 kPa(3 psiMothe 
entire tank 


60 




— - 


— 


Water or 
other similar 
liquid 


413 kPa(60psig) 


UN nonrefrigerated 
gases 






— 


Water 


130% of Maximum 
Allowable Working 
Pressure 


UN refrigerated 
gases 


— 


X 


X 


Water or Air 


1.3 times design pressure 


IM refrigerated or 
nonrefrigerated 
liquefied gases 




X 


X 


Water or Air 


1 50% of the Maximum 
Allowable Working 
Pressure 



A09 



242 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



cular in cross section and shall have heads 
of an approved design, with all fittings, i.e., 
couplings, nozzles, etc., located in the heads 
of the tank. 



S6.15.1 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR 

TON TANKS 

49 CFR, Section 1 79.300 has specific criteria 
for ton tanks that shall be met to satisfy DOT 
Specification 106Aand 110A. The limitations 
are as follows: 

a) Ton tanks shall have a water containing ca- 
pacity of at least 0.68 tonnr (1 500 pounds), 
but in no case can the water containing 
capacity of the ton tank exceed 1.18 tonne 
(2600 pounds); 

b) Ton tanks shall not be insulated; 

c) Thickness of plates for DOT Specification's 
1 06A and 1 1 0A ton tanks shall be in ac- 
cordance with Table S6.1 5.1 -a; 

d) The maximum carbon content for carbon 
steel used in the fabrication of ton tanks 
shall not exceed 0.31%; 

e) Permitted materials can be either an ASME, 
SA material, or an ASTM Material permitted 
by Table S6.1 5.1 -b; 

f) DOT Specification 106A ton tanks shall 
only use forged-welded heads, convex to 
pressure. The forged-welded heads shall 
be torispherical with an inside radius not 
greater than the inside diameter of the shell. 
The heads shall be one piece, hot formed in 
one heat so as to provide a straight flange 
at least 100 mm (4 inches) long. The heads 
must have a snug fit into the shell; 

g) DOT Specification 110A ton tanks shall 
only use fusion-welded heads formed con- 
cave to pressure. The fusion-welded heads 
shall be an ellipsoid of 2:1 ratio and shall 
be of one piece, hot formed in one heat so 



as to provide a straight flange at least 1-1/2 
inches (38 mm) long; 

h) All longitudinal welded joints on DOT 
Specification 1 06A and DOT Specification 
1 1 0A ton tanks shall be a fusion weld. DOT 
Specification 106A ton tank head to shell 
attachments shall be a forged-welded joint. 5 
DOT Specification 1 10A ton tank head to 
shell attachments shall be a fusion weld; 

i) Postweld heat treatment is required after 
welding for all DOT Specification 106A 
and Specification 1 1 0A ton tanks; 

j) DOT Specification 106A and DOT Speci- 
fication 1 10A ton tanks shall be of such a 
design as to afford maximum protection 
to any fitting or attachment to the head, 
including loading and unloading valves. 
The protection housing 5 shall not project 
beyond the end of the ton tanks and shall 
be securely fastened to the tank head; 

k) If applicable, siphon pipes and their cou- 
plings on the inside of the ton tank's head 
and lugs on the outside of the tank head for 
attaching valve protection housing shall be 
fusion welded prior to performing postweld 
heat treatment; 

I) DOT Specification 106A and DOT Speci- 
fication 1 1 0A ton tanks are required to be 
equipped with one or more approved types 
of pressure relief devices. The device shall 
be made out of metal and the pressure 
relief devices shall not be subject to rapid 
deterioration by the lading. The device's 
in let fitting to the tank shall be a screw -type 
fitting and installed or attached directly into 
the ton tank's head or attached to the head 
by other approved methods. For thread 
connections, the following shall apply: 

1 ) The threaded connections for all open- 
ings shall be in compliance with the 
National Gas Taper Threads (NGT); 



5 The forged-welded joint shall be thoroughly hammered or 
rolled to ensure a sound weld. 



247 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



TabIeS6.15.1-a 

Thickne ss of Plates and Safety Valve Requirements 



DOT Specification 


■ 106A500-X 


106A800-X 


110A500-W 


11 0600- W 


110A800-W 


110A1000-W 


Minimum required 
bursting pressure, MRa 
(psig) 


None 
Specified 


None 
Specified 


8.62 
(1,250) 


10.34 
(1,500) 


13.8 
(2,000) 


17.2 
(2,500) 


Minimum thickness 
shell, inches (mm), 
Test Pressure (See CFR 
179.300-15), MPa 
(psig) 


10mm 

(13/32) 

3.45 

(500) 


1 7mm 

(11/16) 

5.52 

(800) 


10mm 

(11/32) 
3.45 
(500) 


10mm 

(3/8) 
4.41 
(600) 


12mm 

(15/32) 

5.52 

(800) 


15mm 
(19/32) 

6.89 
(1,000) 


Start-to-discharge, 
or burst pressure 
(maximum MPa (psig)) 


2.59 

(375) 


4.14 
(600) 


2.59 

(375) 


3.10 

(450) 


4.14 
(600) 


4.83 
(700) 



Table S6.1 5.1 -b 

Acce ptable Materials with Accep table Ten sile Strength and Elongation Requirements 



Material Specification 



Minimum Tensile Strength MPa (psi) 
in the welded condition. 

These values are to be used in the 
design calculations. 



ASTM A 240 type 304 



ASTM A 240 type 304L 



ASTM A 240 type 31 6 



ASTM A 240 type 3 16L 



ASTM A 240 type 321 



ASTM A 285 Gr. A 



ASTM A 285 Gr. B 



ASTM A 285 Gr. C 



ASTM A 51 5 Gr. 65 



ASTM A 515 Gr. 70 



ASTM A 516 Gr. 70 



517(75,000) 



483 (70,000) 



517(75,000) 



483 (70,000) 



517 (75,000) 



310(45,000) 



345 (50,000) 



380 (55,000) 



448 (65,000) 



483 (70,000) 



483 (70,000) 



Minimum Elongation in 50 mm (2 in. ) 
(percent) in the welded condition. 

These values are to be used in the 
design calculations. 



25 



25 



25 



25 



25 



29 



20 



20 



20 



20 



20 



Z4B 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



2) Pressure relief devices shall be set for 
start-to-discharge and rupture discs shall 
burst at a pressure not exceeding the 
pressure identified in Table S6.1 5.1 -a. 



f) Distortions; or 

g) Any other conditions that might make the 
ton tank unsafe for transportation. 



m) Fusible plugs if used shall be required to 
relieve the pressure from the tank at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 79°C (175°F) and 
shall be vapor tight at a temperature not 
exceeding 54°C(130°F). 



S6.15.2 VISUAL INSPECTION OF 

TON TANKS 

Without any regard to any other periodic in- 
spection and test requirements, a ton tank shall 
be visually inspected for evidence of any: 

a) Defects in welds; 

b) Abrasions; 

c) Corrosion; 

d) Cracks; 

e) Dents; 



S6.15.3 INSPECTION AND TESTS OF 
DOT SPECIFICATION 106A 
AND DOT SPECIFICATION 110A 

TON TANKS 

Each ton tank shall be retested by subjecting 
the ton tank to a hydrostatic test in accordance 
with Table S6.15.3. The hydrostatic test shall 
include an evaluation of the tank's permanent 
expansion. As a minimum the hydrostatic test 
and the expansion procedure shall include: 

a) The hydrostatic test pressure shall be main- 
tained for a minimum of 30 seconds. This 
time period may be extended as long as 
necessary to secure complete expansion 
of the ton tank. 

b) The pressure gage used for the hydrostatic 
test shall be accurate withinl % of the range 
of the pressure gage. The accuracy of the 
pressure gage shall be verified prior to 
performing the hydrostatic test. 



Table S6.1 5.3 

Ton Tank Periodic Inspection and Test Frequencies 





Retest Interval, years 


Minimum Retest 
Pressure, MPa (psig) 


Pressure Relief Valve 
Pressure, MPa (psig) 


DOT 
Specification 


Tank 


Pressure 
Relief 
Device 


Tank 

Hydrostatic 

Expansion 


Tank Air 
Test 


Start-to- 
Discharge 


Vapor 
Tight 


106A500 


S 


2 


500(3.45) 


100(0.69) 


375(2.59) 


300 (2.07) 


106A500X 


5 


: ; 2 


500(3.45) 


100(0.69) 


375(2.59) 


;iui ,_'.,!-, 


106A800 


■■ ■■■ ■■ . 5 : 


2 


800 (5.52) 


100(0.69) 


:600(4.14) 


480(3.31) 


106A800X 


5 


2 : 


800 (5.52) 


100(0.69) 


(-,011(4.14: 


480(3.31) 


106A800NCI 


5 


: ■ 2 


800 (5.52) 


100(0.69) 


600(4.14) 


480(3 31) 


1 1 0A500-W 


\ 5. : . 


2 V \\ 


500 (3.45) 


100(0.69) 


375(2.59) 


300 (2.07) 


1 1 0A600-W 


: s \ 


'.-*:. 2 


600(4.41) 


100(0.69) 


; 500(3.45) •■ 


360 i ■ m 


110A800-W 


'■'/, * 


2 ! 


800 (5.52) 


100(0.69) 


600(4.14) 


480 (3 !1 ) 


1 1 0A1 000-W 


5 


2' ' : 


1,000(6.89) 


100(0.69) 


750(5.17) 


600 ( 4.41) 



249 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



c) The expansion test procedure shall include 
the following requirements: 

1) The expansion shall be recorded in 
cubic cm; 

2) Permanent volumetric expansion shall 
not exceed 10% of the total volumetric 
expansion at the test pressure; and 

3) The expansion gage shall be accurate 
within one percent of the hydrostatic 
test pressure. 

d) The ton tank shall not show any signs of 
leakage or stress during the hydrostatic and 
expansion test. 

e) The retest may be made at any time during 
the calendar year the retest falls due. 

S6.1 5.3.1 AIR TESTS 

a) Al I specification DOT 1 06A and DOT 1 1 0A 
ton tanks, in addition to the hydrostatic 
test shall be subjected to an air test at fre- 
quencies and pressures specified in Table 
S6.15.3. 

b) The air test shall be under positive control 
to ensure safety to all inspection and test 
personnel. 

c) Any leakage observed will require the ton 
tank to be repaired and retested prior to 
placing the ton tank back into service. 



S6.1 5.3.3 RUPTURE DISCS AND FUSIBLE 
PLUGS 

All rupture discs required by S6.15.1(l)(2) and 
fusible plugs required by S6.15.1(m) shall be 
removed from the ton tank and inspected. The 
inspection shall include but not limited to the 
following: 

a) All rupture discs shall be inspected for 
corrosion, leakage, and manufacturer toler- 
ances; 

b) All fusible plugs shall be inspected for cor- 
rosion, loose, or deteriorated temperature 
sensitive materials; 

c) Any indication specified in (a) and (b) above 
will require the rupture disc or fusible plug 
to be replaced with devices specified in 
S6.1 5.1 (l)(2) and S6.1 5.1 (m) of this section. 



S6.1 5.3.4 SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF 
THE PERIODIC RETESTING 

If the results of the periodic retest are successful, 
the ton tank shall be plainly and permanently 
stamped on one head or chime of each ton 
tank. The stamping shall include: 

a) The month and year of the test followed by 
a "V", and 

b) Dates of previous tests and all prescribed 
markings shall not be removed. Previous 
dates and markings on the ton tank's head 
or chime shall be legible. 



S6.1 5.3.2 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE 

TESTING 

All pressure relief devices shall be retested by 
air or gas for the start-to-discharge and vapor 
tightness requirements at frequencies and pres- 
sures specified in Table S6.1 5.3. 



25D 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



S6.1 5.3.5 EXEMPTIONS TO PERIODIC 
HYDROSTATIC RETESTING 

Ton tanks that satisfy DOT 1 06A and DOT 1 1 0A 
that are used exclusively for transporting fluori- 
nated hydrocarbons and mixtures thereof, and 
are free from corroding components related to 
the ton tank may be exempted from the periodic 
hydrostatic retest if: 

a) The ton tank is given a complete internal 
and external visual inspection of all heads, 
shells, nozzles, couplings, pressure relief 
devices, i.e. pressure relief valves and rup- 
ture discs and fusible plugs for deterioration 
and leakage. 

b) The visual internal and external inspec- 
tion is performed by qualified personnel, 
i.e., registered inspector, employee of the 
owner-user, etc. 



S6.1 5.3.6 RECORD OF RETEST 
INSPECTION 

The owner or the person performing the re- 
quired pressure test and visual inspection is 
required to retain a written record of the results 
as long as the ton tank is in service. The written 
report shall identify the following: 

a) Date of the test and inspection; 

b) DOT Specification Number of the ton 
tank; 

c) Ton tank identification: registered symbol 
and serial number, date of manufacture, 
and ownership symbol; 

d) Type of protective coating, i.e., painting, 
etc.; 

e) Statement as to the need for refinishing or 
recoating the ton tank; 

f) Conditions checked for: 
1 ) leakage; 



2) corrosion; 

3) gouges; 

4) dents or dings; 

5) broken or damaged chimes, or protec- 
tive rings; 

6) fire damage; 

7) internal conditions; 

8) test pressure; and 

9) the written report shall also identify the 
results of the test: 

a. disposition of the tank, i.e., returned 
to service, returned to the manufac- 
turer for repair, or scrapped; and 

b. Identification of the person per- 
forming the retest or inspection. 



S6.15.4 STAMPING REQUIREMENTS 

OF DOT 106A AND DOT 110A 
TON TANKS 

To identify compliance with CFR 179.300-1 
each DOT 1 06A and DOT 1 1 0A ton tank shall 
be plainly and permanently stamped with let- 
ters and figures 3/8 of an inch high on valve 
end chime of the ton tank's head. The minimum 
requirements for the stamping are as follows: 

a) DOT Specification Number; 

b) Material and cladding material if any. This 
information shall be stamped directly be- 
low the DOT Specification Number; 

c) Owner's or builder's identifying symbol 
and serial number. This information shall 
be stamped directly below the material 
identification stamping. The owner's or 
builder's symbol shall be registered with 
the Bureau of Explosions (duplications are 
not authorized); 



251 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



d) Inspector's official mark. This information 
shall be stamped directly below the owner's 
or builder's symbol; 

e) Date of the original ton tank test (month 
and year). Provisions should be made 
that subsequent tests may easily be added 
thereto; 

f) Water capacity of the ton tank in kilograms 
(pounds); 

g) A duplicate of the stamping that satisfies 
(a) through (f) should be used if the plate is 
made of brass and is permanently attached 
to the ton tank's head. 



A09 S6.16 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 

S6.16.1 SCOPE 

This Section provides details for the applica- 
tion, continued service inspection, and repair 
of pressure relief devices specified for over- 
pressure protection of transport tanks. 

Pressure relief devices are provided for all 
transport tanks to prevent internal pressure 
from exceeding design values. They may also 
be provided to prevent excessive internal 
vacuum. Overpressure protection may be 
provided by reclosing pressure relief valves, 
non-reclosing devices such as rupture disks 
or breaking bar or breaking pin valves, or 
combinations of pressure relief valves and 
non-reclosing devices. 

S6.16.2 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 

When inspections of pressure relief devices 
are being performed, inspectors should be 
aware that tests of these devices involve the 
discharge of the test fluid, which can result in 
high velocity fluid flow, possible high or low 
temperature fluids, and high noise levels. If a 
test is being performed with the service fluid, 
it should be a fluid that is safe for discharge 
and not toxic or hazardous. Due to the na- 
ture of fluids being transported, most testing 



will involve removing the device from the 
transport tank and testing it on a test stand. 
(See S6.12.1, Pre-lnspection Activities.) 

S6.16.3 INSTALLATION PROVISIONS 

Incorrect installation of a pressure relief de- 
vice can have a detrimental effect on device 
performance. The following provisions shall 
be followed when installing pressure relief 
devices on transport tanks. 

a) Inlet piping shall have an area at least 
equal to the pressure relief device inlet 
size with no restrictions which can affect 
flow through the device. 

b) Pressure relief devices shall be installed 
to be in communication with the vapor 
space of the tank in its normal transport 
orientation as near as practicable on the 
longitudinal center line, and in the center 
of the tank. 

c) If discharge piping is provided, it shall have 
an area at least equal to the pressure relief 
device, be as short and straight as possible, 
and of a length that will not affect the pres- 
sure relief device flow performance. It will 
typically discharge upward, and should be 
directed away from personnel that may be 
around the tank at ground level. 

d) Provisions for protection of the outlet of 
pressure relief devices from contamination 
from the effects of rain, weather, etc., shall 
be provided. Where rain caps are provided, 
the fit shal I not be tight enough to affect the 
valve performance. 

e) Pressure relief devices may be installed 
inside a protective housing consisting of 
mechanical elements designed to protect 
the valve during roll-over events. These 
elements shall not obstruct the outlet of the 
device. 

f) If a rupture disk is used in combination with 
a pressure relief valve, it shall be located 
inboard of the pressure relief valve. 



252 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



g) When a rupture disk is used in combina- 
tion with a pressure relief valve, a device 
to detect leakage through the rupture disk, 
or actuation of the rupture disk, shall be 
provided. These devices detect leakage or 
actuation by observation of the accumu- 
tion of pressure between the disk and the 
pressure relief valve, and shall consist of a 
needle valve, try-cock, tell tale indicator or 
pressure gage. Where a valve is provided, 
it shall be closed during normal opera- 
tion. Leaking disks or disks, which have 
discharged, shall be replaced as soon as 
possible. 

h) Block valves shall not be used on either 
device inlets or outlets. 

56.16.4 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE IN- 
SPECTION 

For pressure relief valves, inspection shall con- 
sist of an External and Internal Visual Inspection 
and a Pressure Test to determine valve function. 
For non-reclosing pressure relief devices, in- 
spection shall consist of an External and Internal 
Visual Inspection as well. 

56.1 6.5 SCHEDULE OF INSPECTIONS 

Pressure relief devices shall be inspected at 
the frequency as required by Tables S6.13.4, 
S6.1 4, or S6.1 6.3. For both an External Visual 
Inspection and a Pressure Test, the frequency of 
inspection for pressure relief devices shall be 
the same as the frequency required for inspec- 
tion of the transport tank itself. 

56.16.6 EXTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION 
OF PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 

The following items shall be inspected during 
the External Visual Inspection. 

a) Pressure relief device nameplate data shall 
be reviewed, and the marked device set 
pressure compared to the transport tank 
data. The pressure rel ief device set pressure 
shall not exceed the tank maximum allow- 
able working pressure (MAWP) except as 



permitted by the applicable transport tank 
specification Appendix. 

b) Where seals are provided to seal external 
adjustments of pressure relief valves, the 
seal must be intact and bear the identifi- 
cation of the organization responsible for 
performing the adjustment. If the valve 
has been repaired or reset, it must bear a 
supplemental nameplate identifying the 
organization responsible for the repair or 
resetting. 

c) Valves that have the set pressure adjustment 
permanently sealed by means such as a 
rivet or roll pin through the adjustment, 
shall be checked to ensure there has been 
no tampering with the set pressure adjust- 
ment. 

d) Check for evidence of leakage through the 
valve. For a valve installed with a rupture 
disk at the inlet, the rupture disk leakage 
detection device shall be checked for signs 
of leakage through the disk. When possible, 
this inspection should be performed with 
normal transport tank operating pressure 
present. 

e) All connecting bolting shall be present and 
tight. 

f) Evidence of rust or corrosion of the pressure 
relief device shall be investigated. 

g) Where drain holes are provided on the side 
of the valve, check that the drain hole 

is not plugged. 

h) Check that a valve spindle restraint (test 
gag) has not been left in place after pressure 
testing of the transport tank. 

i) Check for proper orientation of rupture 
disk devices. These devices will have a 
flow direction arrow or other designation 
such as inlet or vent side to designate the 
flow direction. Installation of rupture disk 
devices in the reverse direction can cause 
a disk to burst at a higher pressure than its 
marked burst pressure. 



252. 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



S6.1 6.7 PRESSURE TESTING OF PRES- 
SURE RELIEF VALVES 

A check of pressure relief valve operation shal I 
be performed to ensure the valve is functioning 
properly. This testing shall be performed at the 
time of the transport tank pressure test when 
the tank pressure test will necessitate removal 
of the pressure relief valve. When the valve 
is removed for testing, the connection on the 
transport tank shall be inspected for corrosion 
or deposits which could block or reduce the 
connection area. 

a) Prior to the test, the inlet and outlet passag- 
es of the valve shall be visually inspected 
for corrosion or deposits of material which 
could affect valve operation. 

b) The test fluid shall be air or other suitable 
non-hazardous gas. 

c) The valve shall be installed on a test stand 

and a calibrated test gage of suitable range 
shall be used. 

d) Valves shall be tested for the following op- 

erational characteristics: 

1 ) Seat Leakage: The test pressure shall be 
increased to seat leakage test pressure 
at which there should be no leakage 
as determined by a bubble test. This 
pressure will typically be 90% of the 
stamped set pressure or the pressure 
prescribed for the applicable transport 
tank specification. There shall be no 
audible or visible leakage at the speci- 
fied seat leakage test pressure. 

2) Set Pressure: The set pressure definition 
used by the valve manufacturer to origi- 
nally set the valve shall be determined, 
and shall be used during evaluations of 
valve performance. For most transport 
tank valves this will usually be the 
"start" to "discharge" pressure which 
is the pressure at which the first audible 
discharge is detected. The test pressure 
shall be increased until the set pressure 
is determined. The valve shall open 



within the tolerance for set pressure as 
specified by the applicable transport 
tank specification. 

3) Re-seal pressure: The test pressure 
shall then be decreased and the pres- 
sure at which the valve reseals shall 
be recorded. The valve shall reseal at 
or above the pressure specified by the 
appl icable transport tank specification, 
or above the normal transport tank op- 
erating pressure. 

4) It is recommended that the test se- 
quence be repeated several times to 
ensure repeatable valve performance. 
Erratic performance may indicate dam- 
age to the valve, including damage or 
deposits on the seating surface. 

e) The results of testing shall be documented 
and be made available to the Inspector. 

f) Testing shall be performed by trained indi- 
viduals from an organization acceptable to 
the Competent Authority. 



S6.16.8 CORRECTION OF DEFECTS 

Any failure of the valve to meet applicable test 
specifications shal I be brought to the attention 
of the Inspector and owner, and steps shall 
be taken to correct the defect. If repairs are 
required they shall be performed by a quali- 
fied organization acceptable to the Competent 
Authority. 

When a valve is to be repaired, it shall be 
completely disassembled, cleaned, all parts 
inspected, and repaired as necessary. It shall 
then be tested and all adjustments resealed with 
a seal identifying the repair organization. Parts 
replaced shall be from the valve manufacturer 
or meet the valve manufacturer's specifications. 
Where soft goods such as gaskets, o-rings, and 
other seals are replaced, new parts shall be 
used. 

Repairs shall be identified with a repair name- 
plate which includes the organization respon- 



25Z.2 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



sible for the repair, date of the repair, and a 
unique identifier identifying repair documenta- 
tion. The goal of the repair is to bring the valve 
back to a 'like new" condition. 

A valve found to be defective may be replaced 
by a new valve or previously repaired valve. 
Care shall be taken to ensure that the replace- 
ment valve meets the same requirements as the 
valve being replaced. 

S6.16.9 INSPECTION OF RUPTURE 

DISKS AND NON-RECLOSING 
DEVICES 

Rupture disks and other non-reclosing devices 
cannot be tested. In lieu of the required pres- 
sure test for a pressure relief valve, the disk and 
disk holder must be removed from the transport 
tank and the disk inlet and outlet surfaces visu- 
ally inspected. (This is considered the "Internal 
Inspection.") Signs of corrosion, damage, or 
deposits will require that the rupture disk be 
replaced. 

A program to periodically replace rupture 
disks is recommended to prevent premature 
disk opening during normal operation. This 
can be caused by corrosion or deterioration 
of the disk or fatigue of the disk material due 
to cyclic operation of the transport tank and 
vibration during normal operation. The rupture 
disk manufacturer may have recommendations 
for the frequency of disk replacement. Replace- 
ment disks shall have the same specifications 
for burst pressure and coincident temperature 
as the disk being replaced, unless the service 
conditions for the transport vessel are being 
changed. It is recommended that replacement 
disks be specified by the complete disk descrip- 
tion including model number, burst pressure, 
and coincident temperature, and the lot num- 
ber from the disk being replaced. Disks and disk 
holders from different manufacturers shall not 
be interchanged. 



S6.17 



DEFINITIONS 



These Definitions shall be used in conjunction 
with those of Section 9 of the NBIC. Where 
conflicts between the two arise, those listed 
below shall prevail. 

Approval — A written authorization, includ- 
ing a competent authority approval from the 
Associate Administrator or other designated 
department official, to perform a function for 
which prior authorization by the Associate 
Administrator is required. 

Approval Agency — An organization or a per- 
son designated by the DOT to certify packaging 
as having been designed, manufactured, tested, 
modified, marked, or maintained in compli- 
ance with applicable DOT regulations. 

Approved — Approval issued or recognized by 
the department unless otherwise specifically 
indicated. 

Appurtenance — Any attachment to a cargo 
tank that has no lading retention or containment 
function and provides no structural support to 
the cargo tank. 

Associate Administrator — The Associate Admin- 
istrator for Hazardous Materials Safety, Research, 
and Special Programs Administration. 

Atmospheric Gas — Air, nitrogen, oxygen, 
argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. 

Attachments — Structural Members means 
the suspension sub-frame, accident protection 
structures, external circumferential reinforce- 
ments, support framing, and kingpin sub-frame 
(upper coupling). 

Attachments Light Weight — Welded to a 
cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, brake 
line clip, skirting structure, lamp mounting 
bracing, or placard holder. 



252.3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



Authorized Inspector (AI) — An inspector 
regularly employed by an ASME-accredited 
Authorized Inspection Agency (AIA) who has 
been qualified to ASME developed criteria, to 
perform inspections under the rules of any Ju- 
risdiction that has adopted the ASME Code. 

Baffle — A nonliquid-tight transverse partition 
device that deflects, checks, or regulates fluid 
motion in a tank. 

Bar — 1 BAR = 1 00 kPa (1 4.5 psi). 

Bottle — An inner packaging having a neck of 
relatively smaller cross section than the body 
and an opening capable of holding a closure 
for retention of the contents. 

Bottom Shell — That portion of a tank car sur- 
face, excluding the head ends of the tank car 
that lies within two feet, measured circumfer- 
entially, of the bottom longitudinal center line 
of the tank car tank. 

Bulk Packaging — A packaging other than the 
vessel or a barge, including a transport vehicle 
or freight container, in which hazardous mate- 
rials are loaded with no intermediate form of 
containment and which has: 



b) Is permanently attached to or forms a part 
of a motor vehicle, or is not permanently 
attached to a motor vehicle but which, 
by reason of its size, construction, or at- 
tachment to a motor vehicle is loaded or 
unloaded without being removed from the 
motor vehicle; and 

c) Is not fabricated under a specification for 
cylinders, portable tanks, tank cars, or 
multi-unit tank car tanks. 

Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle — A motor vehicle 
with one or more cargo tanks permanently 
attached to or forming an integral part of the 
motor vehicle. 

Carrier — A person engaged in the transporta- 
tion of passengers or property by: 

a) Land or water, as a common, contract, or 
private carrier; or 

b) Civil aircraft. 

Certified Individual — An individual that is 
qualified and certified by a manufacturer ac- 
credited by ASME to construct Class 3 Section 
XII Transport Tanks. 



a) A maximum capacity greater than 450L 
(1 19 gallons) as a receptacle for a liquid; 

b) A maximum net mass greater than 400 kg 
(882 pounds) and a maximum capacity 
greater than 450L (1 1 9 gallons) as a recep- 
tacle for a solid; or 

c) A water capacity greater than 454 kg (1 000 
pounds) as a receptacle for a gas. 

Bulkhead — A liquid-tight transverse closure 
at the ends of or between (compartment) cargo 
tanks. 

Cargo Tank — A bulk packaging which: 

a) Is a tank intended primarily for the car- 
riage of liquids or gases and includes ap- 
purtenances, reinforcements, fittings, and 
closures; 



Combination Packaging — A combination of 
packaging for transport purposes, consisting 
of one or more inner packaging secured in a 
non-bulk outer packaging. It does not include 
a composite packaging. 

Combustible Liquid — Any liquid that does not 
meet the definition of any other hazard class 
specified in 1 73.129 of Title 49 and has a flash 
point above 60.5°C (1 41 .5°F) and below 93°C 
(100°F). 

Competent Authority — A national agency 
responsible under its national law for the 
control or regulation of a particular aspect of 
the transportation of hazardous materials. In 
the United States, the Associate Administrator 
of the US Department of Transportation is the 
Competent Authority. 



252.4 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



Composite Packaging — A packaging consist- 
ing of an outer package and an inner receptacle 
so constructed that the inner receptacle and the 
outer package are integral. Once assembled, 
it remains an integrated single unit. It is filled, 
stored, shipped, and emptied as such. 

Compressed Gas in Solution — A non-liquefied 
compressed gas that is dissolved in a solvent. 

Constructed and Certified in Accordance with 
the ASME Code — A cargo tank that is con- 
structed and stamped in accordance with the 
ASME Code and is inspected and certified by 
an Authorized Inspector, Qualified Inspector, 
or a Certified Individual. 

Corrosive Materia! — A liquid or solid that 
causes full thickness destruction of human skin 
at the site of contact within a specified period 
of time. A liquid that has a severe corrosion 
rate on steel or aluminum based on the criteria 
in 173.173(c) (3) of Title 49 is also a corrosive 
material. 

Cryogenic Liquid — A refrigerated liquefied 
gas having a boiling point colder than -90°C 
(-1 30°F) at 1 01 .3 kPa (1 4.7 psia) absolute. 

Design Certification — That each cargo tank or 
cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including 
its required accident damage protection device, 
must be certified to conform to the specification 
requirements by a Design Certifying Engineer 
who is registered with the department. An 
accident damage protection device is a rear- 
end protection, overturn protection, or piping 
protection. 

Design Certifying Engineer — A person regis- 
tered with the department in accordance with 
Subpart F of Part 1 07 of 49 CFR who has the 
knowledge and ability to perform stress analysis 
of pressure vessels and otherwise determine 
whether a cargo tank design and construction 
meets the applicable DOT specification. In 
addition, Design Certifiying Engineer means a 
person who meets, at a minimum, any one of 
the following: 



a) Has an engineering degree and one year of 
work experience in cargo tank structural or 
mechanical design; 

b) Is currently registered as a professional 
engineer by the appropriate authority of a 
state of the United States or a province of 
Canada; or 

c) Has at least three years experience in per- 
forming the duties of a Design Certifying 
Engineer by September 1, 1991, and was 
registered with the department by Decem- 
ber 31, 1995. 



Design Type 
are made: 



One or more cargo tanks that 



a) to the same specification; 

b) by the same manufacturer; 

c) to the same engineering drawings and 
calculations, except for minor variations in 
piping that do not affect the lading retention 
capabilities of the cargo tank; 

d) of the same materials of constructions; 

e) to the same cross-sectional dimensions; 

f) to a length varying by no more than 5 per- 
cent; 

g) with the volume varying by no more than 5 
percent (due to the change in length only); 
and 

h) for the purposes of 1 78.338 of Title 49 only, 
with the same insulation system. 

DOT or Department — US Department of 
Transportation. 

Elevated Temperatures Material — A mate- 
rial which, when offered for transportation or 
transported in a bulk packaging: 

a) Is in a liquid phase and at a temperature at 
orabove100°C(212°F); 



253 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z 



INSPECTION 



b) Is in a liquid phase with a flash point at or 
above 37.8°C (100°F) that is intentionally 
heated and offered for transportation, or 
transported at or above the flash point; or 

c) Is in a solid phase and at a temperature at 
or above 240°C (464°F). 

Extreme Dynamic Loadings — The maximum 
loading of a cargo tank motor vehicle may 
experience during its expected life, excluding 
accident loadings resulting from an accident, 
such as overturn or collision. 

Flammable Gas — Any material that is a gas at 
20°C (68°F) or less and 101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) of 
pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 20°C 
(68°F) or less at 1 01 .3 kPa (1 4.7 psia)] which: 

a) Is ignitable at 101.3kPa (14.7 psia) when 
in a mixtue of 1 3% or less by volume with 
air; or 

b) Has a flammable range at 101.3kPa (14.7 
psia) with air of at least 12% regardless of 
the lower limit. Except for aerosols, the lim- 
its specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall 
be determined at 101.3kPa (14.7 psia) of 
pressure and a temperature of 20°C (68°F) 
in accordance with the ASTM E681-85, 
Standard Test Method for Concentration 
Limits of Flammability of Chemicals, or 
other equivalent method approved by the 
Associate Administrator, Hazardous Mate- 
rial Safety. 

Gas — A material that has a vapor pressure 
greater than 300 kPa (43.5 psia) at 50°C (1 22°F) 
or is completely gaseous at 20°C (68°F) at a 
standard pressure of 1 01 .3 kPa (1 4.7 psia). 

Gross Weight or Gross —The weight of a pack- 
aging plus the weight of its contents. 

Hazardous Class — The category of hazard 
assigned to a hazardous material under the 
definitional criteria of part 1 73 of Title 49 and 
the provisions of the 1 72.1 01 Table. A material 
should meet the defining criteria for more than 
one hazard class but is assigned to only one 
hazard class. 



Hazardous Material — A substance or material 
that the Secretary of Transportation has deter- 
mined is capable of posing an unreasonable 
risk to health, safety, and property when trans- 
ported in commerce and has been designated 
as hazardous under section 5103 of Federal 
Hazardous Law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term 
includes hazardous substances, hazardous 
wastes, marine pollutants, elevated tempera- 
ture materials, materials designated as hazard- 
ous in the Hazardous Material Table (49 CFR 
172.101), and materials that meet the defining 
criteria for hazard classes and divisions of 1 73 
of subchapter C of 1 71 .8 of Title 49. 

Hazardous Zones — One of four levels of haz- 
ard (Hazard Zones A through D) as assigned to 
gases, as specified in 1 73.1 1 6(a) of Title 49, and 
one of two levels of hazard (Hazard Zones A 
and B) assigned to liquids that are poisonous by 
inhalation as specified in 1 73.133(a) ofTitle49. 
A hazard zone is based on the LC 50 value for 
acute inhalation toxicity of gases and vapors. 

High Pressure Liquefied Gas — A gas with a 
critical temperature between -50°C (-58°F) and 
+ 65°C(149°F). 

Inner Packaging — A packaging for which 
an outer packaging is required for transport. 
It does not include the inner receptacle of a 
composite packaging. 

Inner Receptacle — A receptacle that requires 
an outer packaging in order to perform its con- 
tainment function. The inner receptacle should 
be an inner packaging of a combination pack- 
aging or the inner receptacle of a composite 
packaging. 

Inspection Pressure — The pressure used to 
determine leak tightness of the cargo tank 
when testing with pneumatic or hydrostatic 
pressure. 

Lading — The hazardous material contained 
in the cargo tank 

Liquefied Compressed Gas — a gas when pack- 
aged under pressure for transportation is partially 
liquid at temperatures above -50°C (-58°F). 



254 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



Liquid — A material, other than an elevated 
temperature material, with a melting point or 
initial melting point of 20°C (68°F) or lower at 
a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa (14.7 psig). 
Liquid Phase means a material that meets 
the definition of liquid when evaluated at the 
higher of the temperature at which it is offered 
for transportation or at which it is transported, 
not at the 37.8 °C (1 00°F) temperature specified 
in ASTM D 4359-84. 

Low Pressure Liquefied Gas — A gas with a 
critical temperature above + 65°C (149°F). 

Manufacturer — Any person engaged in the 
manufacture of a DOT specification cargo tank, 
cargo tank motor vehicle, or cargo tank equip- 
ment that forms part of the cargo tank wall. 
This term includes attaching a cargo tank to a 
motor vehicle or to a motor vehicle suspension 
component that involves welding on a cargo 
tank wall. A manufacturer must register with 
the department in accordance Subpart F of Part 
107 in Subpart A of 49 CFR. 

Marking — A descriptive name, identifica- 
tion number, instructions, cautions, weight, 
specification, or UN marks, or combinations 
thereof, required by Title 49 on outer packaging 
or hazardous materials. 

Mode — Any of the following transportation 
methods: rail, highway, air, or water. 

Modification — Any change to the original 
design and construction of a cargo tank or a 
cargo tank motor vehicle that affects its struc- 
tural integrity or lading retention capability 
including changes to equipment certified as 
part of an emergency discharge control system. 
Any modification that involves welding on the 
cargo tank wall must also meet all requirements 
for "Repair" as defined in this section. Excluded 
from this catagory are the following: 

a) A change to motor vehicle equipment 
such as lights, truck, or tractor power train 
components, steering, and brake systems, 
suspension parts, and changes to appurte- 
nances, such as fender attachments, light- 
ing brackets, ladder brackets; and 



b) Replacement of components such as valves, 
vents, and fittings with a component of a 
similar design and of the same size. 

Motor Vehicle — A vehicle, machine, trac- 
tor, trailer, or semi-trailer, or any combination 
thereof, propelled or drawn by mechanical 
power and used upon the highways in the 
transportation of passengers or property. It does 
not include a vehicle operated exclusively on a 
rail or rails or a trolley bus operated by electric 
power derived from a fixed overhead wire, fur- 
nishing local passenger transportation similar 
to street-railway service. 

Multi-Specification Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle 

— A cargo tank with two or more cargo tanks 
fabricated to more than one cargo tank speci- 
fication. 

Non-Liquefied Compressed Gas — when pack- 
aged under pressure for transportation is entirely 
gaseous at -50°C (-58°F) with a critical tempera- 
ture less than or equal to -50°C (-58°F). 

Normal Operating Loading — A cargo tank 
motor vehicle equipped with two or more cargo 
tanks fabricated to more than one cargo tank 
specification. 

Operator — A person who controls the use of 
aircraft, vessel, or vehicle. 

Outer Packaging — The outermost enclosure of 
a composite or combination packaging together 
with any absorbent material, cushioning, and 
any other components necessary to contain and 
protect inner receptacles or inner packaging. 

Owner — The person who owns a cargo tank 
motor vehicle used for the transportation of 
hazardous materials, or that person's autho- 
rized agent. 

Packaging — A receptacle and any other 
components or materials necessary for the 
receptacle to perform its containment function 
in conformance with the minimum packing 
requirements of Title 49. 



255 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Packing Group — A grouping according to the 
degree of danger present by hazardous mate- 
rials. Packing Group I indicates great danger- 
Packing Group II indicates medium danger; 
Packing Group III indicates minor danger. 

Person — An individual, firm, co-partnership, 
corporation, company, association, or joint- 
stock (including any trustee, receiver, assignee, 
or similar representative); or any government or 
Indian tribe (or an agency or instrumentality of 
any government or Indian tribe) that transports 
hazardous material to further a commercial 
enterprise or offers a hazardous material for 
transportation in commerce. 

Poisonous Gas — A material that is a gas at 
20°C (68°F) or less and a pressure of 1 01 .3 kPa 
(14.7 psia) [a material that has a boiling point 
of 20°C (68°F) or less at 1 01 .3 kPa (1 4.7 psia] 
and which: 

a) Is known to be so toxic to humans as to 
pose a hazard to health during transporta- 
tion; or 

b) In the absence of adequate data on human 
toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans 
because when tested on laboratory animals 
it has an LC50. 

Poisonous Material — A material, other than a 
gas, which is known to be so toxic to humans as 
to afford a hazard to health during transporta- 
tion, or which in the absence of adequate data 
on human toxicity. 

Portable Tanks — A bulk packaging (except 
cylinder having a water capacity of 1000 
pounds or less) designated primarily to be 
loaded onto, or on, or temporarily attached to 
a transport vehicle or ship and equipped with 
skids, mountings, or accessories to facilitate 
handling of the tank by mechanical means. It 
does not include a cargo tank, tank car, multi- 
unit tank car tanks, or trailers carrying 3AX, 
3AAX, or 3T cylinders. 

psi — Pounds per square inch. 

psia — Pounds per square inch absolute. 



psig — Pounds per square inch gage. 

Qualified Inspector — An inspector regularly 
employed by an ASME Qualified Organiza- 
tion (QIO) who has been qualified to ASME 
developed criteria by a written examination, 
to perfom inspections under the rules of any 
jurisdiction that has adopted the ASME Code. 
TheQI shall not be in the employ of the manu- 
facturer. See ASME XII, TG-41 0. 

Rail Car — A car designed to carry freight or 
nonpassenger personnel by rail, and includes a 
box car, flat car, gondola car, hopper car, tank 
car, and occupied caboose. 

Rebarrelling — Replacing more than 50% of 
the combined shell and head material of a 
cargo tank. 

Receptacle — A containment vessel for receiv- 
ing and holding materials, including any means 
of closing. 

Registered Inspector (Rl) — A person regis- 
tered with the department in accordance with 
Subpart F of Part 1 07 of 49 CFR who has the 
knowledge and ability to determine whether a 
cargo tank conforms with the applicable DOT 
specification. In addition, Registered Inspector 
means a person who meets, at a minimum, any 
one of the following: 

a) Has an engineering degree and one year of 
work experience; 

b) Has an associate degree in engineering and 
two years of work experience; 

c) Has a high school diploma or General 
Equivalency Diploma and three years work 
experience; or 

d) Has at least three years experience perform- 
ing the duties of a Registered Inspector by 
September 1 , 1 991 , and was registered with 
the DOT by December 31,1 995. 



256 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



Repair — Any welding on a cargo tank wall 
done to return a cargo tank or a cargo tank mo- 
tor vehicle to its orginial design and construc- 
tion specification, or to a condition prescribed 
for a later equivalent specification in effect at 
the time of the repair. Excluded from this cat- 
egory are the following: 

a) A change to motor vehicle equipment 
such as lights, truck, or tractor power train 
components. Steering and brake systems, 
suspension parts, and changes to appurte- 
nances, such as fender attachments, light- 
ing brackets, ladder brackets; 

b) Replacement of components such as valves, 
vents, and fittings with a component of a 
similar design and of the same size; and 

c) Replacement of an appurtenance by weld- 
ing to a mounting pad. 

RepSacement of a Barrel — To replace the ex- 
isting tank on a motor vehicle chassis with an 
unused (new) tank. 

SCF (standard cubic foot) — One cubic foot of 
gas measured at 60°F, and 14.7 psia. 

Single Packaging — A nonbulk packaging other 
than a combination packaging. 

Solid — A material that is not a gas or liquid. 

Solution — Any homogenous liquid mixture of 
two or more chemical compounds or elements 
that will not undergo any segregation under 
conditions normal to transportation. 

Specification Packaging — A packaging con- 
forming to one of the specifications or standards 
for packaging in Part 178 or Part 179 of Title 
49. 

Strong Outside Container — The outermost 
enclosure that provides protection against the 
unintentional release of its contents under con- 
ditions normally incident to transportation. 

Tanks — A container, consisting of a shell 
and heads that form the pressure vessel hav- 



ing opening designed to accept pressure tight 
fittings or closure, but excludes any appurte- 
nances, reinforcements, fittings, or closures. 

Test Pressure — The pressure to which a tank is 
subjected to determine structural integrity. 

Top She!! — The tank car surface, excluding the 
head ends and bottom shell of the tank car. 

Transport Vehicle — A cargo-car-carrying 
vehicle such as an automobile, van, tractor, 
truck, semi trailer, tank car, or rail car used for 
the transportation of cargo by any mode. Each 
cargo-carrying body (trailer, rail car, etc.) is a 
separate transport vehicle. 

UFC — Uniform Freight Classification. 

UN — United Nations. 

UN PortableTank — An intermodal tank having 
a capacity of more than 450L (1 1 8.9 gallons). 
It includes a shell fitted with service equipment 
and structural equipment, including stabilizing 
members external to the shell and skids, mount- 
ings or accessories to facilitate mechanical 
handling. A UN portable tank must be capable 
of being filled and discharged without the 
removal of its structural equipment and must 
be capable of being lifted when full. Cargo 
tanks, rail tank car tanks, nonmetallic tanks, 
nonspecification tanks, bulk bins, and IBC's 
and packaging made to cylinder specifications 
are not UN portable tanks. 

UN Recommendation — The UN Recom- 
mendations on the Transport of Dangerous 
Goods. 

UN Standard Packaging — A conforming to 
standards in the UN Recommendations. 

Vessel — Includes every description of water- 
craft, used or capable of being used, as a means 
of transportation on the water. 



257 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 

Viscous Liquid — A liquid material that has 
a measured viscosity in excess of 2500 cen- 
tistokes at 25°C (77°F), when determined in 
accordance with the procedures specified in 
ASTM Method D 445-72 "Kinematic Viscosity 
of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and the 
Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)," or ASTM 
Method D 1200-70 "Viscosity of Paints, Var- 
nishes, and Lacquers by Ford Viscosity Cup." 



25B 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE 



PART Z 



INSPECTION 



A09 SUPPLEMENT 8 

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL BE- 
TWEEN SAFETY OR SAFETY 
RELIEF VALVE SETTING AND 
BOILER OR PRESSURE VESSEL 
OPERATING PRESSURE 



S8.1 



SCOPE 



If a safety valve or safety relief valve is sub- 
jected to pressure at or near its set pressure, 
it will tend to weep or simmer, and deposits 
may accumulate in the seat and disk area. 
Eventually, this can cause the valve to freeze 
closed and thereafter the valve could fail to 
open at the set pressure. Unless the source of 
pressure to the boiler or pressure vessel is in- 
terrupted, the pressure could exceed the rup- 
ture pressure of the vessel. It is important that 
the pressure differential between the valve set 
pressure and the boiler or pressure vessel op- 
erating pressure is sufficiently large to prevent 
the valve from weeping or simmering. 



S8.2 



For hot-water heating boilers, the recommend- 
ed pressure differential between the pressure 
relief valve set pressure and the boiler oper- 
ating pressure should be at least 10 psi (70 
kPa), or 25% of the boiler operating pressure, 
whichever is greater. Two examples follow: 

a) If the safety relief valve of a hot-water 
heating boiler is set to open at 30 psi (200 
kPa), the boiler operating pressure should 
not exceed 20 psi (140 kPa). 

b) If the safety rel ief valve of a hot water heat- 
ing boiler is set to open at 1 00 psi (700 
kPa), the boiler operating pressure should 
not exceed 75 psi (520 kPa). Section IV of 
the ASME Code does not require that safety 
relief valves used on hot water heating boil- 
ers have a specified blowdown. Therefore, 
to help ensure that the safety relief valve 
will close tightly after opening and when 
the boiler pressure is reduced to the normal 
operating pressure, the pressure at which 
the valve closes should be well above the 



operating pressure of the boiler. 

S8.3 STEAM HEATING BOILERS 

For steam heating boilers, the recommended 
pressure differential between the safety valve 
set pressure and boiler operating pressure 
should be at least 5 psi (35 kPa), i.e., the boiler 
operating pressure should not exceed 10 psi 
{70 kPa). 

Since some absorption-type refrigeration sys- 
tems use the steam heating boiler for their 
operation, the boiler operating pressure may 
exceed 10 psi (70 kPa). If the boiler operat- 
ing pressure is greater than 10 psi (70 kPa), it 
should not exceed 1 5 psi (1 00 kPa), minus the 
blowdown pressure of the safety valve. 

This recommendation can be verified by in- 
creasing the steam pressure in the boiler until 
the safety valve pops, then slowly reducing the 
pressure until it closes, to ensure that this clos- 
ing pressure is above the operating pressure. 



HOT-WATER HEATING BOILERS S8.4 



POWER BOILERS 



For power boilers (steam), the recommended 
pressure differentials between the safety valve 
set pressure and the boiler operating pressure 
are as follows: 



ZS2. 1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



MINIMUM PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL AS 
PERCENTAGE OF BOILER DESIGN PRESSURE 



DESIGN PRESSURE 



over 15 psi to 300 psi 

1 0% but not less than 7 psi 

over 300 psi to 1000 psi 
7% but not less than 30 psi 

over 1000 psi to 2000 psi 
5% but not less than 70 psi 



over 2000 psi 

per designer's judgment 



(100KPato2.10MPa) 
(50 KPa) 

(2.14 MPa to 6.89 MPa) 
(200 KPa) 

(6.89 MPa to 13.8 MPa) 
(480 KPa) 

(13.8 MPa) 



um 



Notes: 

1 . Above 2000 psi (13.8 MPa) the pressure differential between operating pressure and the maxim..... 
allowable working pressure is a matter for the designer's judgement , taking into consideration such fac- 
tors as satisfactory operating experience and the intended service conditions. 

2. Safety relief valves in hot water service are more susceptible to damage and subsequent leakage, 
than safety valves relieving steam. It is recommended that the maximum allowable working pressure of 
the boiler and safety relief valve setting for high-temperature hot -water boilers be selected substantially 
higher than the desired operating pressure, so as to minimize the time the safety relief valve must lift 



J 



S8.5 



PRESSURE VESSELS 



Due to the variety of service conditions and 
the various designs of pressure relief valves, 
only general guidelines can be given regard- 
ing differentials between the set pressure of 
the valve and the operating pressure of the 
vessel. Operating difficulty will be minimized 
by providing an adequate differential for the 
application. The following is general advi- 
sory information on the characteristics of the 
intended service and of the pressure relief 
valves that may bear on the proper pressure 
differential selection for a given application. 
These considerations should be reviewed ear- 
ly in the system design since they may dictate 
the maximum allowable working pressure of 
the system. 

To minimize operational problems it is imper- 
ative that the user consider not only normal 
operating conditions of the fluids (liquids or 
gases), pressures, and temperatures, but also 



start-up and shutdown conditions, process 
upsets, anticipated ambient conditions, in- 
strument response time,and pressure surges 
due to quick-closing valves, etc. When such 
conditions are not considered, the pressure 
relief devices may become, in effect, a pres- 
sure controller, a duty for which it was not 
designed. Additional consideration should be 
given to the hazard and pollution associated 
with the release of the fluid. Larger differen- 
tials may be appropriate for fluids which are 
toxic, corrosive, or exceptionally valuable. 

The blowdown characteristics and capabili- 
ties are the first consideration in selecting a 
compatible valve and operating margin. After 
a self-actuated release of pressure, the valve 
must be capable of reclosing above the nor- 
mal operating pressure. For example: if the 
valve is set at 100 psi (700 kPa) with a 7% 
blowdown, it will close at 93 psi (640 kPa). 
The operating pressure must be maintained 
below 93 psi (640 kPa) in order to prevent 



tO L-t £* a t£g 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE * PART 2 



INSPECTION 



leakage or flow from a partially open valve. 
Users should exercise caution regarding the 
blowdown adjustment of large, spring-loaded 
valves. Test facilities, whether owned by the 
manufacturer, repair house, or user, may not 
have sufficient capacity to accurately verify 
the blowdown setting. The setting cannot be 
considered accurate unless made in the field 
on an actual installation. 

Pilot operated valves represent a special case 
from the standpoint of both blowdown and 
tightness. The pilot portion of some pilot oper- 
ated valves can be set at blowdowns as short 
as 2%. This characteristic is not, however, re- 
flected in the operation of the main valve in all 
cases. The main valve can vary considerably 
from the pilot depending on the location of 
the two components in the system. If the pilot 
is installed remotely from the main valve, sig- 
nificant time and pressure lags can occur, but 
reseating of the pilot ensures reseating of the 
main valve. The pressure drop in connecting 
piping between the pilot and the main valve 
must not be excessive, otherwise the operation 
of the main valve will be adversely affected. 

Tightness capability is another factor affect- 
ing valve selection, whether spring-loaded or 
pilot operated. Tightness varies somewhat de- 
pending on whether metal or resilient seats are 
specified and also on such factors as corrosion 
and temperature. The required tightness and 
test method should be specified to comply at a 
pressure not lower than the normal operating 
pressure of the process. It should be remem- 
bered that any degree of tightness obtained 
should not be considered permanent. Service 
operation of a valve almost invariably reduces 
the degree of tightness. 

The following minimum pressure differentials 
are recommended unless the safety or safety 
relief valve has been designed or tested in a 
specific or similar service and a smaller differ- 
ential has been recommended by the manu- 
facturer: 



a) for set pressures up to 70 psi (480 kPa), the 
recommended pressure differential is 

5 psi (35 kPa); 

b) for set pressure between 70 and 1 000 psi 
(480 kPa and 6.89 MPa), the recommended 
pressure differential is 1 0% of set pressure; 
and 

c) for set pressures above 1 000 psi (6.89MPa), 
the recommended pressure differential 

is 7% of set pressure. 



262.3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



ZS2.4 




Part Z, Section B 

Inspection — Glossary of Terms 



2V3 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 



INSPECTION 



PART 2, SECTION 9 
INSPECTION — GLOSSARY OF TERMS 



9.1 



DEFINITIONS 



For the purpose of applying the rules of the 
NBIC, the following terms and definitions shall 
be used herein as applicable to each Part: 

Additional terms and definitions specific to 
DOT Transport Tanks are defined in Part 2, 
Supplement 6. 

A07 Accumulator — A vessel in which the test 
medium is stored or accumulated prior to its 
use for testing. 

A09 Alteration — A change in the item described on 
the original Manufacturer's Data Report which 
affects the pressure containing capability of the 
pressure-retaining item. (See sub-section 3.4.3, 
EXAMPLES OF ALTERATION)Nonphysical 
changes such as an increase in the maximum al- 
lowable working pressure (internal or external), 
increase in design temperature, or a reduction 
in minimum temperature of a pressure-retaining 
item shall be considered an alteration. 

ANSI — The American National Standards 
Institute. 

ASME Code — The American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers' Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code published by that Society, including 
addenda and Code Cases, approved by the 
associated ASME Board. 

Assembler — An organization who purchases 
or receives from a manufacturer the necessary 
component parts of valves and assembles, 
adjusts, tests, seals, and ships safety or safety 
relief valves at a geographical location, and 
using facilities other than those used by the 
manufacturer. 

Authorized Inspection Agency — 

New Construction: An Authorized Inspection 
Agency is one that is accredited by the National 
Board meeting the qualification and duties of 



NB-360, Criteria for Acceptance of Authorized 
Inspection Agencies for New Construction. 

Inservice: An Authorized Inspection Agency 
is either: 

a) a jurisdictional authority as defined in 
the National Board Constitution; or 

b) an entity that is accredited by the Na- 
tional Board meeting NB 369, Quali- 
fications and Duties for Authorized 
Inspection Agencies Performing Inser- 
vice Inspection Activities and Quali- 
fications for Inspectors of Boilers and 
Pressure Vessels; NB-371 , Accreditation 
of Owner-User Inspection Organiza- 
tions (OUIO) or NB-390, For Federal 
Inspection Agencies (FIAs) Performing 
Inservice Inspection Activities. 

Capacity Certification — The verification by the 
National Board that a particular valve design or 
model has successfully completed all capacity 
testing as required by the ASME Code. 

Chimney or Stack — A device or means for 
providing the venting or escape of combustion 
gases from the operating unit. 

Confined Space — Work locations considered A09 
"confined" because their configurations hinder 
the activities of employees who must enter, 
work in and exit them. A confined space has 
limited or restricted means for entry or exit, 
and it is not designed for continuous employee 
occupancy. Confined spaces include, but are 
not limited to, underground vaults, tanks, stor- 
age bins, manholes, pits, silos, process vessels, 
and pipelines. Regulatory Organizations often 
use the term "permit-required confined space" 
(permit space) to describe a confined space that 
has one or more of the following characteris- 
tics: contains or has the potential to contain 
a hazardous atmosphere; contains a material 
that has the potential to engulf an entrant; has 
walls that converge inward or floors that slope 



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NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



downward and taper into a smaller area which 
could trap or asphyxiate an entrant; or contains 
any other recognized safety or health hazard, 
such as unguarded machinery, exposed live 
wires, or heat stress. Confined space entry 
requirements may differ in many locations and 
the Inspector is cautioned of the need to comply 
with local or site- specific confined space entry 
requirements. 

Conversion — 

Pressure Relief Devices: The change of a pres- 
sure relief valve from one capacity-certified 
configuration to another by use of manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

A07 Units of Measure: Changing the numeric value of 
a parameter from one system of units to another. 

Demonstration — A program of making evident 
by illustration, explanation, and completion of 
tasks documenting evaluation of an applicant's 
ability to perform code activities, including the 
adequacy of the applicant's quality program, and 
by a review of the implementation of that program 
at the address of record and/or work location. 

Dutchman — Generally limited to tube or pipe 
cross-section replacement. The work necessary 
to remove a compromised section of material 
and replace the section with material meet- 
ing the service requirements and installation 
procedures acceptable to the Inspector. Also 
recognized as piecing. 

Examination — In process work denoting the 
act of performing or completing a task of inter- 
rogation of compliance. Visual observations, 
radiography, liquid penetrant, magnetic par- 
ticle, and ultrasonic methods are recognized 
examples of examination techniques. 

Exit — A doorway, hallway, or similar passage 
that will allow free, normally upright unencum- 
bered egress from an area. 

Field — A temporary location, under the control 
of the Certificate Holder, that is used for repairs 
and/or alterations to pressure-retaining items at 
an address different from that shown on the Cer- 
tificate Holder's Certificate of Authorization. 



Forced-Flow Steam Generator — A steam gen- 
erator with no fixed steam line and waterline. 

Inspection — A process of review to ensure 
engineering design, materials, assembly, ex- 
amination and testing requirements have been 
met and are compliant with the Code. 

Inspector — See National Board Commis- 
sioned Inspector and National Board Owner- 
User Commissioned Inspector. 

Intervening — Coming between or inserted 
between, as between the test vessel and the 
valve being tested. 

Jurisdiction — A governmental entity with the 
power, right, or authority to interpret and enforce 
law, rules, or ordinances pertaining to boilers, 
pressure vessels, or other pressure-retaining 
items. It includes National Board member juris- 
dictions defined as "jurisdictional authorities." 

Jurisdictional Authority — A member of the 
National Board, as defined in the National 
Board Constitution. 

Lift Assist Device — A device used to apply an 
auxiliary load to a pressure relief valve stem or 
spindle, used to determine the valve set pres- 
sure as an alternative to a full pressure test. 

Manufacturer's Documentation — The docu- 
mentation that includes technical information 
and certification required by the original code 
of construction. 

Mechanical Assembly — The work necessary to A08 
establish or restore a pressure retaining boundary, 
under supplementary materials, whereby pres- 
sure-retaining capability is established through a 
mechanical, chemical, or physical interface, as 
defined under the rules of the NBIC. 

Mechanical Repair Method — A method of A08 
repair, which restores a pressure retaining 
boundary to a safe and satisfactory operat- 
ing condition, where the pressure retaining 
boundary is established by a method other than 
welding or blazing, as defined under the rules 
of the NBIC. 



275 



NATIONAL BDARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTIDt 



NB1C — The National Board Inspection Code 
published by The National Board of Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Inspectors. 

"NR" Certificate Holder — An organization in 
possession of a valid "NR" Certificate of Autho- 
rization issued by the National Board. 

National Board —The National Board of Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. 

National Board Commissioned Inspector — 

An individual who holds a valid and current 
National Board Commission. 

Nuclear Items — Items constructed in accor- 
dance with recognized standards to be used in 
nuclear power plants or fuel processing facilities. 

Original Code of Construction — Documents 
promulgated by recognized national standards 
writing bodies that contain technical require- 
ments for construction of pressure-retaining items 
or equivalent to which the pressure-retaining item 
was certified by the original manufacturer. 

Owner or User — As referenced in lowercase 
letters means any person, firm, or corporation 
legally responsible for the safe operation of any 
pressure-retaining item. 

Owner-User inspection Organization — An 

owner or user of pressure-retaining items that 
maintains an established inspection program, 
whose organization and inspection procedures 
meet the requirements of the National Board 
rules and are acceptable to the jurisdiction or 
jurisdictional authority wherein the owner or 
user is located. 

Owner-User Inspector — An individual who 
holds a valid and current National Board 
Owner-User Commission. 

Piecing — A repair method used to remove 
and replace a portion of piping or tubing ma- 
terial with a suitable material and installation 
procedure. 

Pressure-Retaining Stems (PRI) — Any boiler, 
pressure vessel, piping, or material used for 



the containment of pressure, either internal or 
external. The pressure may be obtained from 
an external source, or by the application of 
heat from a direct source, or any combination 
thereof. 

Pressure Test — Prior to initial operation, the 
completed boiler, including pressure piping, 
water columns, superheaters, economizers, 
stop valves, etc., shall be pressure tested in a 
test performed in accordance with the original 
code of construction prior to initial operation 
of an installed unit that is witnessed by an 
Inspector. 

Repair — The work necessary to restore pres- 
sure-retaining items to a safe and satisfactory 
operating condition. 

Re-ending — A method used to join original 
code of construction piping or tubing with 
replacement piping or tubing material for the 
purpose of restoring a required dimension, 
configuration or pressure-retaining capacity. 

Re-rating — See alteration. 

"R" Certificate Holder — An organization in 
possession of a valid "R" Certificate of Autho- 
rization issued by the National Board. 

Safety Relief Valves — A safety relief valve is 
a pressure relief valve characterized by rapid 
opening or pop action, or by opening in propor- 
tion to the increase in pressure over the opening 
pressure, depending on application. 

Settings — Those components and accessories 
required to provide support for the component 
during operation and during any related main- 
tenance activity. 

Shop — A permanent location, the address that 
is shown on the Certificate of Authorization, 
from which a Certificate Holder controls the 
repair and/or alteration of pressure-retaining 
items. 

Testing Laboratory — National Board accepted 
laboratory that performs functional and capac- 
ity tests of pressure relief devices. 



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NATIONAL. BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART Z — INSPECTION 



Transient — An occurrence that is maintained 
only for a short interval as opposed to a steady 
state condition. 

Velocity Distortion — The pressure decrease 
that occurs when fluid flows past the opening 
of a pressure sensing line. This is a distortion 
of the pressure that would be measured under 
the same conditions for a non or slowly mov- 
A07 ing fluid. 

"VR" Certificate Holder — An organization in 
possession of a valid "VR" Certificate of Autho- 
rization issued by the National Board. 

Water Head — The pressure adjustment that 
must be taken into account due to the weight 
of test media (in this case, water) that is 0.433 
psi per vertical ft. (10 kPa per m.) added (sub- 
A07 tracted) from the gage pressure for each foot 
the gage is below (above) the point at which 
the pressure is to be measured. 



276.1 



NATIONAL BOARD INSPECTION CODE • PART 2 — INSPECTION 



276.2